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Chapter 11

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Parasympathetic Nervous System, Insulin, Sympathetic Nervous System


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Chapter
11

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PS Y100
Module 11: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
11.1 - HUNG ER AND EATING
Drive > a biolog ical trigge r tha t tells u s woman b e dep rived of s om e th in g an d
caus e s u s to s e ek out wha t is n e e ded, s u c h as fo o d o r water
Allo s tas is > m otiva tion is not o n ly influen ced b y c urren t n e e d s , b ut a ls o by the
anticipa tion o f fu tu re nee d s
Physiological Aspects of Hunger
- Your brain influences your
body and your body
influences your brain.
- The hypothalamus monitors
your blood chemistry for
indicators of the levels of
sugars and hormones in your
blood (These have to do with energy levels in your body)
- G lucostats (highly specialized neurons that detect glucose levels in the fluid outside
of the cell)
- Low levels > glucostats signal hypothalamus of low levels > hypothalamus
increases hunger drive > become more hungry > Insulin increases (because it
stores the the circulating glucose for future use) > hunger decreases > because
hunger decreases = glucose levels do too => hunger arises again
Eating and the S ocial C ontext
- S ocial Facilitation > Eating more > Dinner hosts encourage guests to eat more
and the longer one sits at the table, the more likely it is that they will keep nibbling at
the food
- Impression Management > Eating less > People will sometimes self consciously
control their behaviour (eat less/ smaller portions) so that others will see them in a
certain way > less rude
- Modelling > Eating whatever they eat > We are influenced by how others around
us are acting (eating) > If the people around us are eating less => We eat less/ If
they are eating more => We feel obliged to also eat more (bigger portions)
Disorders of Eating
- Obes ity > is a d is o rd e r o f pos itive ene rg y bala n c e, in wh ic h e n ergy inta ke
exceeds e nerg y exp enditu re
- A reason for obesity is that there are many foods and that we have much variety >
If we eat the same foods over and over again we become tired of them and are less
likely to eat them > more diversity = more difference in what we can eat => we
don't become tired of the food
- Healthy food is expensive and therefore obesity is increasing among the individuals
who don't earn a lot of money (low income families)
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- An o re xia > is an e atin g d is o rd er th a t in vo lve s 1.) s elf s ta rva tio n, 2.) in te n s e
fe ar o f weight g ain a nd d is s a tis fac tion with one’s bo d y, an d 3.) a d enia l o f the
s e riou s c ons eq uenc e s of s evere ly low we ight
- Bu lim ia > is an e ating d is o rd er th a t is c haracte rize d by p e riod s o f fo od
dep rivatio n , bin ge e atin g, an d pu rg in g
- Developing an eating disorder can be caused by:
1. Depression, guilt & perfectionism
2. low self esteem
3. S uppressed anger
11.2 - S EX
Libido > th e m otiva tio n for s e xu a l activity a n d ple a s u re
Human S exual Behaviour: Psychological Influences
- Why Have S ex?
1. For physical reason > attraction, orgasm etc…
2. To help attain a goal > get a promotion, hurt an enemy etc…
3. For emotional reasons > love etc…
4. Because of insecurity > feeling obliged, feeling negative about
yourself etc…
Human S exual Behaviour: Physiological Influences
- Physiological Measures of S ex:
- Physiological and psychological motives for having sex go hand in hand
- There are many biological motivations associated with sexual motivation but these
biological processes are influenced by a persons psychological state
- Sexu a l Re s p ons e Cyc le > d es crib es th e pha s e s of p h ys io lo gica l c han g e
durin g s e xu al a c tivity wh ic h c o mpro mis es fo ur p rim a ry s ta g e s > excite ment,
plate a u, o rgas m , & re s o lutio n
- Men usually experience one orgasm followed by a refractory period
- Re fra c to ry Perio d > a tim e p e riod durin g wh ich e re ctio n an d org a s m are n o t
phys ically po s s ib le
- However, women can experience multiple orgasms without a refractory period
- O rgasms in Women:
- stimulation of breast, nipples, and vaginal areas > sends signal to hypothalamus
> stimulates pituitary gland to release oxytocin > oxytocin plays a role in orgasm
and post orgasm physiology
- O xytocin levels in the blood surge just after orgasm and may remain elevated for at
least five minutes
S exual O rientation: Biology and Environment
- Sexu a l Orie nta tio n > th e con s is te nt p refere nc e fo r s e xu a l re la tio n s with
memb e rs of th e op p os ite s e x, s ame s e x, o r e ith e r s ex
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