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Chapter 7.2

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7.2: Hermann Ebbinghaus, Bromine, September 11 Attacks

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

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Module 7.2 Encoding and Retrieving Memories
How we encode information affects the chances of us remembering that particular information
later on.
Encoding and Retrieval
Storage the time and way in which information is retained between encoding and retrieval
Rehearsal: The Basics of Encoding
Reitig iforatio oer ad oer to reeer soethig that ou a’t rite do
Known as rehearsal or learning by rote
Reading something over and over to memorize not the most effective way of
Limited effect on LONG-TERM-MEMORY particularly.
o Experiment in the 70s
Participants were asked to remember a 4 digit number
After seeing the number, they were asked to repeat a single word until
they were asked to say the number
Varying delay period between the presentation of the number and the
partiipats’ resposes 2-18 second)
Varying delay period varying number of times the word was
The point of having the word repeated: distraction & trying to see if the
person can remember the word regardless of the number of times
he/she rehearses the word.
Colusio: the uer of ties the distrator ord as reited DID
NOT help ith people’s ailit to reall the ord.
Repeating a word over and over to memorize VERY SMALL
Rehearsal generally not useful for memorization.
Demonstration of the maintenance rehearsal
Maintenance rehearsal remembering something by repeating
Works well for short time remembering but not so much for LTM
Elaborative rehearsal remembering information by thinking about its meaning (not just word)
Much more effecting for encoding than maintenance
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Levels of processing (LOP)
Not all elaborative encoding is created equal
Different types of elaborative encoding different levels of recall
How we process information (how we basically dig into the information) differs from
shallow to deep processing:
o Shallow involves the sound or spelling of a word
o Deep involves the meaning/ function of an item
Really into it!
Truly getting something, more than the structure of the word
When words are encoded based on their meaning (semantics), they are better retained
in long-term memory.
NOTE: deep or shallow effect are limited to LTM only
o STM memory rates unaffected (regardless of level of processing)
Self-reference effect thinking about information in terms of how relevant it is us
Two forms:
o Recognition identifying a stimulus or piece of information when it is presented
to us
Ex. MC questions on a term test/ exam
Ex. Seeing someone you know in the mall
o Recall retrieving information when asked BUT without that information being
present during the retrieval process
Ex. Short-answer questions on an exam
E. Desriig a fried’s appearae to soeoe else
Helped by hints or retrieval cues (driving our memory)
Retrieval cues can be places, people, sights, and sounds
o Cues = environment/ context
Encoding specificity principle states that retrieval is most effective when it occurs in the same
context as encoding
Context - Dependent Memory
o Retrieval most effective when it takes place in the same physical setting as
o Experiment on members of a scuba club
4 experimental groups
Trained and tested underwater
Trained and tested on the land
Trained underwater, tested on the land
Trained on the land, tested underwater
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