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Chapter 3

Chapter 3.docx

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Suzanne Erb

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Chapter 3Basic Principles of Pharmacology The psychological effects of a drug rely on many factors The individuals set and setting the way the drug changes the CNS the route of administration the amount the frequency etcThere is no commonly accepted definition of the word drug It was originally used to reference any substance used in chemistry or medical practice but later on referred solely to substances used in medicines Today it is frequently used to refer to a narcotic agent or illicit substanceIn general it is a chemical that affects one or more biological processesHowever this does not apply to substances commonly used for nutritional purposes like salt water proteins fat etcMany people would prefer to not think of alcohol and nicotine as drugs and chemicals originating or produced within an organism that are used to carry out the normal biological functions are not usually thought of as drugs endogenous vs exogenous Pharmacologists define a drug as a nonfood nonmechanical substance usually a chemical substance that exerts an effect upon a living system Basic Chemical Principles Related to PsychopharmacologyTo understand how drugs interact with living systems it is important to review some of the basic chemical properties of living things o The largest chemical constituent of animals is waterIt is electrically neutral overall but the oxygen end of the molecule has a partial negative charge and the hydrogen end has a partial positive charge This means it is polar Water molecules are attracted to each other very powerfully which creates hydrogen bondsIt is an excellent solvent for other substances that are polar or ionic In its entirety it is referred to as the aqueous phase oIn the organic phase organic refers to the chemistry of carbon based substances The major constituents of the organic phase are hydrocarbons which are the substances that contain hydrogen and carbon bound together covalently o An important fat we need to consider is phospholipids They are a type of diglyceride which has a polar head and two fatty acid carbon tails This lipid bilayer provides a barrier to the movement of any polar and charged substances Some of the barriers include the lipid bilayer as just mentioned the stomach and intestines entry into the circulatory system the brain the blood brain barrier BBB This provides significant resistance to the entry of drugs into the braino The effects of a particular drug on an organism depend heavily on the rate of accumulation and the concentration of the drug at its sites of action as well as the duration of contact These are a function of not only drug administration but also pharmacokineticsThe dynamic process involved in the movement of drugs within biological systems with respect to the drugs absorption distribution binding or localization in tissues metabolic alterations and excretion from the body
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