PSY100H1 Chapter Notes -Social Learning Theory, Psy, Classical Conditioning

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4 Mar 2013
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Department
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Developmental PSY Lec 01
The central controversy in child development: nature (heredity, genes) vs nurture (environment,
learning, experience)
Plato mind-body problem
- Souls exist in the “realm of ideas” enters the body with Innate ideas: pre-existing knowledge
- Trapped inside a body until death
Rene Decarte 1. Mind and body are separate, 2. Division of human behaviour into 2 realms
(psychological functioning and physical workings of body)
3. First modern philosopher to accept a nativistic conception of development
- Cartesian Duality: mind independent of body
John Locke
- Knowledge gained through experiences (REJECTED concept of INNATE IDEAS)
- First major philosophical statement emphasizing “nurture” of environment
- Mind of infant as Tabula Rasa
John- Jacques Rousseau
- Child born with innate ideas and knowledge that unfolds naturally with age
- Knowledge also acquired through interactions with world, guided by child’s own interest
- Child as “noble savage”
Charles Darwin
- Survival of the fittest
- Behaviour has survival values as well
G. Stanley Hall
- adopted at nature viewpoint translated darwin’s view into human development
- proposed Recapitulationist Theory: life cycle changes are a repetition of evolutionary changes
John Watson (Behaviourism)
- Biological factors placed no restrictions on the ways that the environment can shape the course
of child’s development (by organizing environment genius/criminal)
- Learning is a process of combining stimuli with responses under lawful and empirical conditions
- Development = result of learning
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Document Summary

The central controversy in child development: nature (heredity, genes) vs nurture (environment, learning, experience) Souls exist in the realm of ideas enters the body with innate ideas: pre-existing knowledge. Division of human behaviour into 2 realms (psychological functioning and physical workings of body: first modern philosopher to accept a nativistic conception of development. Knowledge gained through experiences (rejected concept of innate ideas) First major philosophical statement emphasizing nurture of environment. Child born with innate ideas and knowledge that unfolds naturally with age. Knowledge also acquired through interactions with world, guided by child"s own interest. Behaviour has survival values as well: stanley hall. Adopted at nature viewpoint translated darwin"s view into human development. Proposed recapitulationist theory: life cycle changes are a repetition of evolutionary changes. Biological factors placed no restrictions on the ways that the environment can shape the course of child"s development (by organizing environment genius/criminal) Learning is a process of combining stimuli with responses under lawful and empirical conditions.

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