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Chapter 7

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Wield, Conation, Apperception

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Chapter 7
Motivation a term used to denote the forces and factors, usually viewed as
residing w/in the person, that energize and direct behaviour Common motivational
ideas in personality psych include wants, desires, needs, goals, strivings, projects,
and tasks
The Psychoanalytic View
Sigmund Freud most influential: psychoanalysis focus on the unconscious
det6terminants of behaviour, intrapsychic conflict, and instinctual drives
concerning sexuality and aggression. Also denotes the process of engaging in
psychotherapy from a psychoanalytic standpoint
o Forces over which we have little control determine all human
behaviour and experience, someone making us move (pawns in chess
o These forces exist w/in us, traced back to primitive drives/instincts,
sexuality and aggression
o Causes anxiety, want too much what we can't have
The unconscious
o We don’t even know what those forces that determine our behaviour
and those conflicts that precipitate our anxiety are, no control over
Two sets of instincts or drives
1. Sexuality and all other life instincts instincts serving sexual reproduction
and survival (sometimes called “Eros)
2. Aggression and all other death instincts instinctual drives assumed to
motivate the person toward behaviour and experience promoting one’s own
death and destruction or aggression toward others (sometimes called
The Unconscious
Unconscious the state of being outside of awareness
Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche emphasized aspects of human
functioning that are outside of consciousness, typically emotional and
irrational urges that are antagonistic to conscious reason
William Wordsworth and John Keats, generally placed the person’s heroic
and creative powers
Hypnotism was used to gain access to the unconscious mind as early as 1784
Baumesiter and Gay argue that middle-class adults in 19th-century Europe
accepted the general idea of an inner world unknowable to the conscious self
o Baumesiter even asserts that Victorian men and woman were
preoccupied with the involuntary revelation of this inner self to
While you might be able to attain conscious insight into the
deep secrets of your own mind, the Victorians believed there
was always the danger of unintentionally revealing the nature
of your own unconscious to others, who as objective outside
observers might even come to know you better than you know
Topographical model Freud’s model of the mind, which distinguishes
among the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious regions. The conscious
corresponds to everyday awareness; the preconscious contains the contents
of ordinary memory, to which awareness may be directed at any time; and
the unconscious contains wishes, feelings, memories, and so on that have
been repressed b/c they threaten the wellbeing of the conscious self
o Conscious what you are currently aware of
o Preconscious not currently aware but could readily entre awareness
should you decide to retrieve the material, storehouse of important
and trivial info
o Unconscious - can’t be readily retrieved, contains elements of
experience that have been actively repressed, repository for ideas,
images, urges, and feelings that are associated with conflict, pain, fear,
guilt, and so on
Repression and Repressors
People sometimes attain good insights and arrive at satisfying conclusions when
they put conscious thought aside and go with their gut intuitions
Repression - Freud’s concept for the process of casting thoughts, memories,
feelings, and conflicts out of consciousness, rendering them unremembered
Stored away b/c they threaten a person’s well-being
Repressors Wienberger, Schwartz, Davidson, persons who experience little
anxiety on a conscious level and who adopt a highly defensive approach to life
Research suggests that repressors have less access than do other people to
negative emotional memories about the self
Repression may also involve a more general failure to retrieve emotional
memories of various kinds (fig. 7.1)
Report a greater number of memories involving emotional experiences of
other people but when it comes to recalling events in which the strong
emotions experienced are their own, and especially when those emotions
entail painful sates of fear and self-consciousness, repressors seem to have
difficulty summoning such memories into awareness
Hansen and Hansen “the architecture of repression”, the mechanisms whereby
emotionally tagged memories, especially unpleasant memories, are left inaccessible
Repressors have an “associative network” for negative emotional
experoences by substantially less complex and more discrete than that found
for negative memories experienced by other people
Negative recollections have a characteristically simple structure, and these
memories are split off from other memories, isolated outside the main network of
interrelated autobiographical recollections
Repressors and nonrepressors organize their episodic memories in different ways
Repressors simplify negative memories to emphasize a single dominant
feeling, as a way of keeping these memories from connecting in their minds
to other autobiographical memories containing other feelings
Nonrepressors tend to describe their negative memories in more complex
terms, emphasizing a number of different emotional states in the same
memory and integrating the negative memory with the main lines of their
autobiographical self
In periods of extreme stress repressive coping styles can lead to resilience the
ability to overcome difficult obstacles in like and thrive amidst adversity (study
page 265)
The Ego’s Defenses
Id the home for instinctual impulses of sex and aggression and their unconscious
derivative wishes, fantasises, and inclinations
Provides all instinctual energy for metal life
Knows no inhibitions
Obeys no logical or moral constraints
Completely out of touch w/ the outside world of reality
Dictated by the pleasure principle individual seek immediate gratification
of instinctual impulses and wishes
Driving force behind primary process thinking a very loose and irrational
form of thinking driven by instinctual demands (dreams_
o Motivated by the sexual and aggressive instincts
Ego serves as the mediator among the id, superego, and external reality
Operates according to the reality principle pushing the individual towards
behaviour aimed at coping w/ conflicting demands, rationally weighing
choices, and defending against various threats to the well-being of the person