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Chapter 9

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Life Review, Cognitive Development, Erogenous Zone

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Chapter 9
Martin Luther’s Identity Crisis
Erikson’s concept of identity is a characteristic developmental adaptation. Its an
aspect of personality that involves the resolution of important life tasks during a
particular stage of development
Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychological Development
Developmental Stages in Childhood
Freud used the word libido to refer to the energy that he believed was derived from
sexual drives, set 5 stages of the libido’s development and in each stage the libido
expresses itself through a particular zone of the body called the erogenous zone
Erikson has 8 stages, central conflict defines stage, conflict must be addressed in
order to move on to next stage (page 351)
Oral stage libido is expressed mainly through oral activities
Trust vs. mistrust infant seeks to establish a hopeful and trusting relation
w/ the environment
Anal stage libido expressed in anus, manifested in bowel movement, shaped by
toilet training
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt toddler seeks to establish themselves as
an independent and competent agent in the environment
Phallic stage libido expressed through genital region
Initiative vs. guilt child experiences Oedipus complex and becomes
concerned w/ issues of power and taking initiative
Boys: intrusive mode of operation, being aggressive
Girls: inclusive mode, teasing, demanding, gasping
Latency stage libido is rarely expressed in an overt manner
Industry vs. inferiority schoolboy/girl receives systematic instructions
from social institutions and beings to lean how to use tools and adopt the
characteristic roles of society
The Problem of Identity
Emerging adulthood refers to the period in the life course running from the late
teenage years into the mid-20s, issues of identity first confronted
Adolescence and Young Adulthood
Genital stage attained at puberty w/ full sexual maturation
Identity vs. role confusion who am I? how do I fit into adult world?
Jean Piaget: formal operations abstract, hypothetico-deductive thinking
Identity Statuses
James Marcia: developed a semistructured interview to ask questions about
exploration and commitment as they apply to the two ears of life that Erikson
repeatedly suggested were at the heart of identity
1. Occupation, or what work role in society the person will occupy
2. Ideology, or what the person’s fundamental beliefs and values are in the
areas of religion and politics
Identity statuses the extent to which a young person has explored and made
commitments to different identity options
1. Identity achievement person who has explored various identity options
and successfully made commitments to realistic identity goals
o Strive for internalized goals and rely on their own skills and capacities
in meeting daily challenges
o Less concerned w/ winning their parents’ love
o Scored high on PSE of achievement motivation
o Tend not to conform to peer pressure and social norms
2. Moratorium currently exploring identity issues but haven’t made
commitments yet
o Should become identity achievers
o More mature
o Use more mature defense mechanisms to cope w/ stress
o Tend to adopt a more engaged and exploratory style in processing
info about the world around them
o Extremely friendly, likeable, sensitive, insightful
o Negative identities represent everything the young person doesn’t
want to be, parents may be the “enemy”
3. Foreclosure fails to meet explore, but makes commitments to
unquestioned positions taken from childhood
o Chooses to do exactly what important authority persons have
o Very close to parents, especially sons to fathers
o Describe their homes as loving and affectionate
o Appear the “best behaved”
o Study diligently, appear happy
o Low in autonomy and anxiety, show unrealistically high levels of
4. Identity diffusion yet to enter exploration and make commitments
o Tend to feel out of place and socially isolated
Identity and Intimacy
6th stage of life, intimacy vs. isolation young adult seeks to establish long-term
affiliations w/ spouse, co-workers, friends
Intimacy status referring to the characteristic quality of a person’s interpersonal
relationships and commitments at a given point in time (page 361, 4 statuses)
Generativity and Adult Development
Generativity vs. stagnation extent to which adult seeks to guide the next
generation and generate a legacy for the self
7 features of generativity
1. Cultural demand
o Developmental expectations
o Societal opportunities
2. Inner desire
o Symbolic immortality (agency)
Something/someone of one’s own image as extension of self
o Need to be needed” (communion)
Desire to nurture others
3. Concern for the next generation
o Promote the extent to which the person cares for and about the
development of the next generation
4. Belief in the species
o Place hope in the advancement of human life
5. Commitment
o Goals
o Decisions
6. Action
o Creating
o Maintaining
o Offering
7. Narration
o The generativity script w/in the personal life story
o Provides adults w/ an envisioned ending
Ego integrity vs. despair associated w/ old age and the acceptance or rejection of
one’s own life as something that was
Erikson described integrity as a postnarcissistic approach to life through which a
person looks back, reviews and critiques the one life that has been produced