Epilepsy: debilitating affliction in which seizures, uncontrolled storms of electrical activity begin in some part of brain and spread. Penfield"s patient undergone surgery, deactivating some regions reactivated regions closely connected to that region. Later realized brain was essential for central functioning- idea comes from those with brain injury (roman gladiators) Early 1900, franz gall and johann spurzheim proposed theory of phrenology based on idea that assessing personality traits and mental abilities by measuring bumps on the human skull. Pierre fluorens believe brain function as one unit. Expt on bird and rodent by removing part of their brain and obs effect on behaviour. Karl lashley used same method to identify where learning occurs. Conceded specific brain regions involved in motor control and sensory experiences. All parts of brain contributed to mental ability (equipotentiality) Theory discredited this day b/c brain function as parts. Performed autopsy on mr. leborgne before death, a patient only able to say word tan but understand language.