The brainstem houses the basic programs of survival. Brainstem a section of the bottom of the brain that houses the most basic programs of survival, such as breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination and orgasm. The brainstem uses the reflexes of the spinal cord to produce useful behaviours. Reticular formation- a large network of neural tissue within the brainstem involved in behavioural arousal and sleep-wake cycles. Cerebellum a large convoluted protuberance at the back of the brainstem that is essential for coordinated movement and balance. The most obvious role of the cerebellum is in motor learning. Patients with disorders of the cerebellum typically have symptoms of ataxia, which involves clumsiness and a loss of motor function. Subcortical structures control basic drives and emotions (figure pg. Above the brainstem and cerebellum is the forebrain, which consists of the two cerebral hemispheres. The most noticeable feature of the forebrain is the cerebral cortex.