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PSY100H1 Chapter Notes -Stereotype Threat, Ingroups And Outgroups

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Michael Inzlicht

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WEEK 7 NOTES Nelson chapter 6 Experiencing Prejudice
Stereotyping and prejudice occur in a social context involving both the perceiver and the target
Social stigma the possession of a characteristic or attribute that conveys a negative social
Stigmas mark the individual as “deviant, flawed, generally undesirable”
Group identification
Whether the individual has already strongly personally identified with their stigmatized
group will affect the degree to which that person will identify with the group
High-identifiers more likely to associate themselves with the group, even when it is negative
Low-identifiers are individualistic/opportunistic & will only identify w/ group when it would
positively affect their social identity
Stereotype threat situation in which negative stereotypes about the group’s ability lead the
stigmatized person to experience anxiety at the thought of performing poorly and confirming
the stereotype.
Effect of stereotype threat more likely for people who highly identify w/ their group
**Study (Steele & Aronson): Blacks underperformed compared to whites when told that it
was a diagnostic test measuring their intellect, but performed as well as whites in non-
diagnostic condition of the same test. When black Ps were primed with race, that was
enough to activate stereotype threat and did worse than without the race prime.
Similar effects with gender & low SES (women & mathematical ability)
Stereotype lift when non-stigmatized person experience enhanced performance when
they engage in downward comparison w/ a member of a stereotyped group
However, salient positive stereotypes can influence you to do well
**Study (Ambody et al) Asian women whose ethnic identity were made salient, they
performed better on a math test when either no identity or their gender was made
Disidentification: individuals disengage their identity from a stereotype-relevant domain in
order to preserve their self-esteem threatened individuals may therefore disidentify with
their groups in order to protect their self-esteem
Research shows for African-Americans, that self-esteem is high or higher than whites
Research show that both high/low achieving blacks were more to negatively evaluate
and distance themselves away from their racial group when they believed that their
group was negatively evaluated by others
Research show that women under stronger stereotype threat tended to disidentify
more with math careers than women under weak threat
Research shows that stigmatized groups like Blacks fail to experience decreased self-esteem
but for some other stigmatized groups such as obese individuals, they suffer low self-esteem
Those who believe stigma is controllable and attribute personal flaw feel low self-
esteem but those who believe stigma is uncontrollable and attribute negative
evaluations to prejudice maintain self-esteem
Self-esteem is not based on how others view their self-worth, which can explain why
stigmatized groups such as blacks may have high self-esteem
Another way to maintain self-esteem is to deny that they have been personally
discriminated against or suffered prejudice
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