Chapter 5 Summarizing This is mostly what you need to know about the chapter and they are the most important things in the chapter.

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16 Oct 2011
Chapter 5. Summarizing the principles of sensation, perception, and attention.
1. Stimuli must be coded to be understood by the brain: Stimuli reaching the receptors are
converted to neural impulses through the process of transduction.
2. Psychophysics relates stimulus to response: By studying how people respond to different
sensory level, scientists can determine thresholds and perceived changes (Signal-
detection theory). Our sensory systems are tuned to adapt to constant level of stimulation
and detect changes in our environment.
3. In gestation, taste buds are chemical detectors: The gustatory sense uses taste buds to
respond to the chemical substances producing basic sensation of sweet, sour, salty, and
bitter. The amount and concentration of taste buds vary individually.
4. In smell, the nasal cavity gathers particles of odour: Receptors in the olfactory epithelium
respond to chemicals and send signals to the olfactory bulb in the brain. Pheromones are
particular chemical signals linked to physiological responses in animals.
5. In touch, sensors in the skin detect pressure, temperature, and pain: The haptic sense
relies on tactile simulation to activate receptors temperature, sharp and dull pain, and
other sensation. Neural “gates” in the spinal cord also control pain.
6. In hearing, the ear is a sound-wave detector: The size and shape of sound wave activate
hair cell in the inner ear. The receptors respond depending on frequency of the sound
wave, timing, and the location of the activated receptors. Having two ears allows us to
locate the source of the sound.
7. In vision, the eye detects light waves: Receptors (rods and cones) in the retina detect
different forms of light waves. The lens helps the eye focus the stimulation on the retina
for near versus far objects. Colour is determined by wavelengths of light activating by
objects, or the mixing of wavelength of light.
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