Motivation factors that energize, direct, or sustain behaviour it is concerned with how behaviour is initiated, directed, and sustained. Need state of biological or social deficiencies within the body. Maslow suggests hierarchy is more useful at the descriptive level than at the empirical level. Initial behaviours in which the animal engages are arbitrary, but any behaviour that satisfies a need is reinforced and therefore is more likely to occur. Motivation can be viewed as a capability that initiates, directs, and sustains behaviours that promote survival and engaging in these behaviors, especially when we are in a state of deprivation, often brings great pleasure. Motivational states therefore arouse behaviours that solve adaptive problems. Freud drives are satisfied according to the pleasure principle, which tells organisms to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Hedonism, as a motivational principle, refers to the humane experience of pleasantness and unpleasantness.