chapter 2 summary from the textbook

29 views10 pages
user avatar
Published on 10 Dec 2010
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Chapter Two – The research enterprise in
psychology
Goals of the scientific enterprise
-Hypothesis: a tentative statement about the relationship
between two or more variable.
-Variables: any measurable conditions, events,
characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed
in the study.
-To build a better understanding of behavior, they construct
theories. (theory: a system of interrelated ideas used to
explain a set of observations)
-A scientific theory must be testable empirical test.
Steps in a scientific investigation:
-1) Formulate a testable hypothesis. Clear formulations are
provided by operational definitions describes the actions
or operations that will be used to measure or control a
variable.
-2) Select the research method and design the study.
Figure out how to put the hypothesis to an empirical test.
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 10 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Various methods experiments, case studies, surveys,
naturalistic observation, etc. Participants: or subjects, are
the persons or animals whose behavior is systematically
observed in a study.
-3) Collect the data. (Data collection techniques:
procedures for making empirical observations and
measurements ex. Direct observation, questionnaire,
interview, psychological test, physiological recording,
examination of archival records)
-4) Analyze the data and draw conclusions. Researchers
use statistics to analyze their data and to decide whether
their hypotheses have been supported.
-5) Report the findings. Write up a concise summary of the
study and its findings. Journal: periodical that publishes
technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly
defined area of study. Publishing allows other experts to
evaluate & critique new findings.
Advantages of the scientific approach
-Advantages: 1) Clarity and precision. Requires that people
specify exactly what they are talking about when they
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 10 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
formulate hypotheses. 2) Relative intolerance of error.
Demand objective data and thorough documentation before
they accept ideas.
-Research methods: consist of various approaches to the
observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of
variables in empirical studies.
oExperimental research looking for causes
-Experiment: a research method investigator manipulates
a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes
whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.
Independent & dependent variables
-Independent variable: condition or event that an
experimenter varies in order to see is impact on another
variable the variable that experimenter controls or
manipulates.
-Dependent variable: the variable that is thought to be
affected by manipulation of the independent variable
usually a measurement of some aspect of the participants’
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 10 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Chapter two the research enterprise in psychology. Hypothesis: a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variable. Variables: any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in the study. To build a better understanding of behavior, they construct theories. (theory: a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations) A scientific theory must be testable empirical test. Clear formulations are provided by operational definitions describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable. 2) select the research method and design the study. Figure out how to put the hypothesis to an empirical test. www. notesolution. com. Various methods experiments, case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation, etc. Participants: or subjects, are the persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study. 3) collect the data. (data collection techniques: procedures for making empirical observations and measurements ex.