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Chapter 2

chapter 2 summary from the textbook

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter Two – The research enterprise in
Goals of the scientific enterprise
-Hypothesis: a tentative statement about the relationship
between two or more variable.
-Variables: any measurable conditions, events,
characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed
in the study.
-To build a better understanding of behavior, they construct
theories. (theory: a system of interrelated ideas used to
explain a set of observations)
-A scientific theory must be testable empirical test.
Steps in a scientific investigation:
-1) Formulate a testable hypothesis. Clear formulations are
provided by operational definitions describes the actions
or operations that will be used to measure or control a
-2) Select the research method and design the study.
Figure out how to put the hypothesis to an empirical test.

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Various methods experiments, case studies, surveys,
naturalistic observation, etc. Participants: or subjects, are
the persons or animals whose behavior is systematically
observed in a study.
-3) Collect the data. (Data collection techniques:
procedures for making empirical observations and
measurements ex. Direct observation, questionnaire,
interview, psychological test, physiological recording,
examination of archival records)
-4) Analyze the data and draw conclusions. Researchers
use statistics to analyze their data and to decide whether
their hypotheses have been supported.
-5) Report the findings. Write up a concise summary of the
study and its findings. Journal: periodical that publishes
technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly
defined area of study. Publishing allows other experts to
evaluate & critique new findings.
Advantages of the scientific approach
-Advantages: 1) Clarity and precision. Requires that people
specify exactly what they are talking about when they

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formulate hypotheses. 2) Relative intolerance of error.
Demand objective data and thorough documentation before
they accept ideas.
-Research methods: consist of various approaches to the
observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of
variables in empirical studies.
oExperimental research looking for causes
-Experiment: a research method investigator manipulates
a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes
whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.
Independent & dependent variables
-Independent variable: condition or event that an
experimenter varies in order to see is impact on another
variable the variable that experimenter controls or
-Dependent variable: the variable that is thought to be
affected by manipulation of the independent variable
usually a measurement of some aspect of the participants’
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