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Chapter 8

PSYA01H3 – Chapter 8 Notes.doc

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PSYA01H3 – Chapter Eight Notes
Overview and Sensory Memory
Memory: the cognitive processes of encoding, storing and retrieving information
Encoding: the process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be
used by the brain’s memory system
Storage: the process of maintaining information in memory
Retrieval: the active processes of locating and using stored information
Sensory memory: memory in which representations of the physical features of a
stimulus are stored for very brief durations
Short-term memory: an immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived. It
is limited in terms of both capacity (7+/[email protected] chunks of information) and duration (less than
20 seconds)
Long-term memory: memory in which information is represented on a permanent or
near-permanent basis
Iconic Memory
Iconic memory: a form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that
has just been perceived; also known as visible persistence
Echoic Memory
Echoic memory: a form of sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived
Short-Term or Working Memory
Encoding of Information in the Short Term: Interaction with Long-Term
Working memory: memory for new information and information retrieved form long-
term memory; used in this text as another name for short-term memory
Primary and Recency Effects
Primary effect: the tendency to remember initial information. In the memorization of a
list of words, the primary effect is evidenced by better recall of the words early in the list
Recency effect: the tendency to recall later information. In the memorization of a list of
words, the recency effect is evidenced by better recall of last words in the list
The Limits of Working Memory
Chunking: a process by which information is simplified by rules, whuch make it easily
remembered once the rules are learned. For example, the string of letters GSTCBCRCMP
are easier to remember if a person learns the rule that organizes them into smaller

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PSYA01H3 – Chapter Eight Notes Memory Overview and Sensory Memory  Memory: the cognitive processes of encoding, storing and retrieving information Encoding: the process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be  used by the brain’s memory system Storage: the process of maintaining information in memory Retrieval: the active processes of locating and using stored information Sensory memory: memory in which representations of the physical features of a  stimulus are stored for very brief durations Short­term memory: an immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived. It  is limited in terms of both capacity (7+/­@ chunks of information) and duration (less than  20 seconds) Long­term memory: memory in which information is represented on a permanent or  near­permanent basis Iconic Memory  Iconic memory: a form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that  has just been perceived; also known as visible persistence Echoic Memory  Echoic memory: a form of sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived  Short­Term or Working Memory  Encoding of Information in the Short Term: Interaction with Long­Term Working memory: memory for new information and information retrieved form long­ term memory; used in this text as another name for short­term memory Primary and Recency Effects Primary effect: the tendency to remember initial information. In the memorization of a  list of words, the primary effect is evidenced by better recall of the words early in the list Recency effect: the tendency to recall later information. In the memorization of a list of  words, the recency effect is evidenced by better recall of last words in the list  The Limits of Working Memory  Chunking: a process by which information is simplified by rules, whuch make it easily  remembered once the rules are learned. For example, the string of letters GSTCBCRCMP  are easier to remember if a person learns the rule that organizes them into smaller  “chunks”; GST, CBC, and RCMP. Varieties of Working Memory  Phonological short­term memory: short­term memory for verbal information Subvocal articulation: an unvoiced speech utterance  Conduction aphasia: an inability to remember words that are heard, although they  usually can be understood and responded to appropriately. This disability is caused by  damage to Wernicke’s and Brock’s areas Loss of Information from Short­Term Memory Learning and Encoding in Long­Term Memory  The Consolidation Hypothesis  Consolidation: the process by which information in short­term memory changes to long­ term memory, presumably because of physical changes that occurs in neurons in the brain  Retrograde amnesia: the loss of the ability to retrieve memories of one’s past,  particularly memories of episodic or autobiographical events Then and Now: Consolidation and the “Genetic Action Potential”  Immediate­early genes (IEGs):  genes that can be activated in the presence of chemicals  that inhibit the synthesis of proteins. IEGs therefore do not rely on the previous activation  of other genes  The Levels of Processing Hypot
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