Summary of Chapter 12
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Chapter 12 Personality
Factor analysis: cor relations among many variables are analyzed to
identify closely r elated clusters of variable. (assumption is that a
single factor is inf luencing all of them)
Personality traits are derived from 5 higher-order traits:
extraversion (outgoing, sociable), neuroticism (anxious, hostile),
openness to experience (curiosity, imaginativeness), agreeableness
(trusting, cooperative), conscientiousness (diligent, discipline).
Psychodynamic theories – descended from Freud’s work, which
focus on unconscious ment al forces.
Personality: Id (pr imitive, instinctive component of personality that
operates according to the pleasure principle), ego (decision-making
component of personality that operates according to the reality
pr inciple), superego (moral component of personality that
incor porates social standards about what represents right and wrong).
Levels of awareness: conscious (whatever one is aware of at a
particular point in time), preconscious (just beneath the surface of
awareness that can easily be retrieved), unconscious (thoughts,
memor ies, desires that are well below the sur face of conscious
awareness but that nonetheless exert g reat inf luence on behavior).
Defence mechanisms: largely unconscious reactions that protect a
person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.
Rationalization: creating false but plausible excuses to justify
Repression: keeping distressing thought and feelings buried in the
Projection: attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motives to
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