chapter 2 textbook notes

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12 Dec 2010
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Chapter 2
1.steps in research: formulate hypothesis design study collect the
data analyze data disseminate the results
2. the goals of scientific study: what, when , what causes (varying the
situation to produce a change in behavior), why
3.replication: repetition to confirm a result
4. theory: idea or model; should produce many testable hypotheses
(Freuds is not good one)
hypothesis: specific prediction of what should be observed
research: systematic collection of data
5.operational definitions: quantify the variables in order to measure
them
6.confound: anything affecting a dependent variable that may
unintentionally change the dependent variable
7.correlational study: cannot show causation; examine how variables
are naturally related without any attempt to alter them
8. third variable problem: when independent variable cannot be
directly manipulated cannot be confident that it was the actual
cause of different results
* show a relation between two variables holds even when potential third
variables are taken in to account
9.directionality problem: which cause which remains ambiguous
10. descriptive studies/observational study: observing and noting the
behavior of people
* naturalistic observation and participant observation
10.observational technique: systematic assessment and coding of overt
 behavior
major method for descriptive studies
reactivity: the observation might alter the result
11.observer bias: systematic errors in observation due to observers
expectation
experimenter expectancy effect: actual change in the behavior of objects
being observed due to observer bias
12.self report method: people provide information in questionnaires or
surveys
13.socially desirable responding: respond in a socially acceptable way
14.central challenge for cross-cultural researchers: refine
measurements to rule out alternative explanations (language,
culture)
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Document Summary

Chapter 2: steps in research: formulate hypothesis design study collect the. 2. data analyze data disseminate the results the goals of scientific study: what, when , what causes (varying the situation to produce a change in behavior), why: replication: repetition to confirm a result. 8. are naturally related without any attempt to alter them third variable problem: when independent variable cannot be directly manipulated cannot be confident that it was the actual cause of different results. * show a relation between two variables holds even when potential third variables are taken in to account: directionality problem: which cause which remains ambiguous, descriptive studies/observational study: observing and noting the behavior of people. 10. observational technique: systematic assessment and coding of overt behavior: major method for descriptive studies reactivity: the observation might alter the result. 11. observer bias: systematic errors in observation due to observer"s expectation experimenter expectancy effect: actual change in the behavior of objects being observed due to observer bias.

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