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Chapter 2

chapter 2 textbook notes

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 2
1.steps in research: formulate hypothesis design study collect the
data analyze data disseminate the results
2. the goals of scientific study: what, when , what causes (varying the
situation to produce a change in behavior), why
3.replication: repetition to confirm a result
4. theory: idea or model; should produce many testable hypotheses
(Freuds is not good one)
hypothesis: specific prediction of what should be observed
research: systematic collection of data
5.operational definitions: quantify the variables in order to measure
them
6.confound: anything affecting a dependent variable that may
unintentionally change the dependent variable
7.correlational study: cannot show causation; examine how variables
are naturally related without any attempt to alter them
8. third variable problem: when independent variable cannot be
directly manipulated cannot be confident that it was the actual
cause of different results
* show a relation between two variables holds even when potential third
variables are taken in to account
9.directionality problem: which cause which remains ambiguous
10. descriptive studies/observational study: observing and noting the
behavior of people
* naturalistic observation and participant observation
10.observational technique: systematic assessment and coding of overt
 behavior
major method for descriptive studies
reactivity: the observation might alter the result
11.observer bias: systematic errors in observation due to observers
expectation
experimenter expectancy effect: actual change in the behavior of objects
being observed due to observer bias
12.self report method: people provide information in questionnaires or
surveys
13.socially desirable responding: respond in a socially acceptable way
14.central challenge for cross-cultural researchers: refine
measurements to rule out alternative explanations (language,
culture)
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Description
Chapter 21steps in research formulate hypothesisdesign studycollect the dataanalyze datadisseminate the results2the goals of scientific study what whenwhat causes varying the situation to produce a change in behavior why3replication repetition to confirm a result4theory idea or model should produce many testable hypotheses Freuds is notgood onehypothesis specific prediction of what should be observedresearch systematic collection of data5operational definitions quantify the variables in order to measure them6confound anything affecting a dependent variable that may unintentionally change the dependent variable7correlational study cannot show causation examine how variables are naturally related without any attempt to alter them8third variable problem when independent variable cannot be directly manipulatedcannot be confident that it was the actual cause of different results show a relati
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