chapter 3 textbook notes

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12 Dec 2010
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Chapter 3
1. genome: provide detailed instructions for everthing ๎€€๎€€๎€€
genome provides the option, and the environment determines which option
is taken
2. chromosomes: structure made up of genes
genes are components of DNA
DNA constists of two intertwined strands of molecules of sugar, phosphate
and nitrogen
Gene expression: Gene ๎€ DNA segment ๎€ DNA ๎€ production of RNA ๎€๎€‚
protein
3. Human Genome Project: identify the precise order of molecules that
makes up each gene
only around 3000 genes in human body ๎€ not a lot; but subtlety
4. alleles ๎€€๎€€๎€€๎€€ : two versions of a gene
dominant genes
recessive genes
5. genotype: the genetic constitution of an organism; actual genetic makeup
phenotype: observable physical characteristics of an organism that result from both
genetic and environmental influences
6. reproductive cells from each parent divide to produce gametes ๎€€๎€€ (contains one half
of each pair of chromosomes)
sperm and egg cells combine during fertilization
zygote ๎€€๎€€๎€€ contains 23 pairs of chromosomes: one half from mother and the other
half from father
7. most mutations are benign and have little influence
8. most dominant gene disorders are lethal for most of their carriers and do not last in
the gene pool
9. monozygotic twins: exactly identical twins; one zygote divides to two
dizygotic twins: two separately fertilized eggs
10. neuron: the basic unit of the nervous system; operate through electrical impulses;
communicate through chemical signals; reception, conduction and transmission
11. dendrite: branchlike extensions of neurons that detect information from other
neurons
cell body: the place where information from thousands of other neurons is collected
and processed
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Document Summary

Chapter 3: genome: provide detailed instructions for everthing (cid:0) genome provides the option, and the environment determines which option is taken, chromosomes: structure made up of genes genes are components of dna. Dna constists of two intertwined strands of molecules of sugar, phosphate and nitrogen. * nicotine excites ach, heighten attention; when give up, perform poorly than non- smokers: monoamines: regulate states of arousal and affect and to motivate behavior. * serontonin: emotional states, impulse control and dreaming. * dopamine: motivation and motor control; rewarding quality (cocaine: block the reuptake of dopamine; parkinson"s disease: depletion of dopamine) :arousal and alertness: gaba: primary inhibitory transmitter in the nervous system and hyperpolarize postsynaptic membranes. *cck: highest concentration in cerebral cortex; learning and memory, pain transmission, exploratory behavior; social anxiety; fullness. *endorphins: natural pain reduction and reward; placebo effect; associated with euphoric feeling.

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