oEx. Walking – right foot, up then move it forward and place it down…etc.
oFalse Fame Effect – a experiment where people were made to read a list of name, the next day they were asked
if any of the names were of famous people – the people remembered reading the names and tricked themselves
into thinking they had seen the name before, thus the person must be famous.
•Repetition Priming – the improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has previously been experienced. –
Implicit memory is also involved in this.
Section 3 – How is Information Organized in Long-Term Memory?
•Long-term memory is a temporal sequence.
•Encoding – the processing of information so that it can be stored.
oAre perceptual experiences are transformed into representations (or codes) – which are then stored. Ex. The
concept of “dog” is a mental representation – for a category of animals that share features – barking, fur.
•Storage – the retention of encoding representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that
register the event.
oStored receptions are referred to as memories.
•Retrieval – the act of recalling or remembering stored information in order to use it. – Often involves an explicit effort to
access the contents of memory storage. Many times it is implicit, remembering a friends name.
•Memories are stored by meaning – according to Craik and Lockhart the levels of processing model, the more deeply an
item is encoded, the more meaning it has, and better it is remembered.
•Maintenance Rehearsal – a type of encoding that involves continuously repeating an item.
•Elaborative Rehearsal – the encoding of information in a more meaningful way. Such as linking it to knowledge in long-
term memory. – More brain activity occurs during this process – more brain activity = greater memory.
•Schema – a hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceives, organize, process and use information.
oEx. People use there past memories and general knowledge about the world to shape incoming information. –
By doing so they construct new memories.
oEx. Fredrick Bartlett experiment – made people listen to native folklore, and fifteen minutes later repeat it back
to others, each person distorted the story a great deal, and did so in a consistent way - they shaped the story to
make sense from their own cultural standpoint.
•Networks of Association – each unit of information in the network is known as a node.
oEx. When you look at a fire engine, all the nodes connected to fire engines are activated. – The resulting pattern
of activation gives rise to knowing that the object is a fire engine, not a cat.
oActivating one node increases the likelihood that closely related nodes would also be activated. – The
closer the nodes the stronger their association will be. – More likelihood that activating one will activate the
•Activating one node, increases the likelihood that associated nodes will become active is the central tenet of ‘spreading
activation models of memory’
•Retrieval Cue – anything that helps us access information from Long-term memory. – This explains why it is easier to
recognize, than recall.
•Encoding Specificity principle – any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the
oEx. 80 words, studied by students in specific room. – Then the students were asks to recall the words they
studied in the room they studied the words, or a different room. – It room 49 correct, diff. rooms 35 correct. –
The room was a retrieval cue.
oContext dependent memory – enhancement of memory when the recall situation is similar to the encoding
situation. – Based also on things such as odors, background music, and location.
•State Dependent memory – your memory being affected by physical state – mood, inebriation. Etc.
Section 4 – What Brain processes are involved in Memory?
•Engram – refers to the physical site of memory storage – Lashley.
•Equipotentialiatity - Memory is distributed through out the brain rather than any specific place.
Memory is stored in multiple locations and linked together through memory circuits.
•“Neurons that fire together, wire together”