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Psychology Chapter 1
Important Terms and Concepts
Principles of Psychology
1.Knowledge if cumulative over time.
2.Biological revolution energized research – knowledge of neurochemistry
of mental disorders, mapping of the human genome and brain imaging.
3. Influenced by the thought that the brain evolved to solve adaptive
problems – evolutionary theory
4.Focus in understanding brain, mind and behavior through different
levels of analysis.
•Nature-nurture Debate – argument concerning whether psychological
characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education,
experience, and culture.
•Mind-body debate – a fundamental psychological issue that considers
whether mind and body are separate and distinct or whether the mind is
simply the subjective experience of the physical brain.
•Dualism – the philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the
•In 1843 John Stuart Mill published System of Logic – saying that
psychology should be practiced as a science.
•Introspection - a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences
that requires people to insect and report on the content of their thoughts.
Ex. Describing the ‘blueness’ of the sky.
•Structuralism – approach to psych. Based on the idea that conscious
experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or
•Stream of consciousness – a phrase coined y William James to describe
one’s continuous series of ever-changing thoughts.
•Functionalism – an approach to psych concerned with the adaptive
purpose, or function of mind and behavior. – according to this, the mind
came into existence over the course of human evolution.
•Gestalt Theory – based on the ideas that the whole of personal
experiences is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements.
oArose in opposition to structuralism – the whole is diff. form the
some of its parts. – the perception of objects is subjective and based
on its context.
•Unconscious – identifies mental processes that operate below the level of
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