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Chapter 7

chapter 7 notes from text

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Michael Inzlicht

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1 MEMORY (7) Memory The capacity of the Nervous System to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing living organisms to benefit from experience Often incomplete, biased, distorted......... differing vastly between individuals for a specific event Who you are ~ Memories Differ vastly from others who experience identical events (not like a video camera faithfully capturing objective images) Analogy Computer Basic Stages of Memory (3 stages for Modal Memory Model) Modal Memory Model 3 stage memory system that involves sensory, short-term, and long-term memory o CONFLICT many psychologist believe in multiple memory system that do not follow 3 stage sequence 1. Sensory Memory for sensory info stored briefly in its original sensory form Brief lights, smells, odors leave a trace on nervous system for a split second then vanishes (temporary sensory buffer) Visual sensory memory ICONIC memory Auditory sensory memory ECHOIC memory flash 3 rows of letters Participants asked to recall one of rows at various levels of delay (iconic)levels of delay with ability to recall?] Iconic + echoic allow us to experience world as a continuous stream rather then discrete sensations Attention is the process that moves information from the sensory store to short-term memory. Inattentional blindness!!! 2. Short-term Memory (immediate) Limited capacity memory system holding info in awareness for a brief period of time (also info that is retrieved from LTM), 20-30 sec? www.notesolution.com2 Active, like RAM, constantly replaced by new info and is lost if not saved can hold info for no longer than 20 sec, then disappears unless actively prevent from happening by thinking about the info or rehearsing it constantly bombarded with new info Memory span and Chunking o Memory span ~ 7 (+- 2) items o Bunch of letters and grouping the letters to form something of more sense (chunking) o The organization of the letters is much easier to recall because: Memory span limited to at most 7 items, but items can be letters, numbers, words, concepts Meaningful units easier to remember than nonsense units o Chunking Process of organizing info into meaningful units Greater the expertise with the material , more efficiently you can chunk info the more you can remember Ability to chunk info efficiently relies on long-term memory system Working Memory o STM not a single storage system but rather an active processing unit that deals with multiple types of information o Working Memory A 3 part active memory system that keeps information available so that it can be used for activities such as problem solving, reasoning, and comprehension 3 Parts: Central Executive Presides over the interactions between subsystems and long-term memory the boss Encodes info from sensory systems and filters info that is sufficiently important to be stored in LTM Retrieves info from LTM as needed Relies on 2 sub-components that temporarily hold auditory or visual info Phonological Loop Encodes auditory info and is active whenever read, speak, or repeat words to self in order to remember them inner voice auditory phonological loop easy to mistaken consonants that sound similar then others inner voice www.notesolution.com
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