chapter 7 notes from text

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12 Dec 2010

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The capacity of the Nervous System to acquire and retain usable skills and
knowledge, allowing living organisms to benefit from experience
Often incomplete, biased, distorted......... differing vastly between individuals for a
specific event
Who you are ~ Memories
Differ vastly from others who experience identical events (not like a video camera
faithfully capturing objective images)
Analogy Computer
Basic Stages of Memory (3 stages for Modal Memory Model)
Modal Memory Model 3 stage memory system that involves sensory, short-term,
and long-term memory
oCONFLICT many psychologist believe in multiple memory system that do
not follow 3 stage sequence
1.Sensory Memory
for sensory info stored briefly in its original sensory form
Brief lights, smells, odors leave a trace on nervous system for a split second then
vanishes (temporary sensory buffer)
Visual sensory memory ICONIC memory
Auditory sensory memory ECHOIC memory
flash 3 rows of letters Participants asked to recall one of rows at various levels of
delay (iconic) [levels of delay with ability to recall?]
Iconic + echoic allow us to experience world as a continuous stream rather then
discrete sensations
Attention is the process that moves information from the sensory store to short-term
Inattentional blindness!!!
2. Short-term Memory (immediate)
Limited capacity memory system holding info in awareness for a brief period of time
(also info that is retrieved from LTM), 20-30 sec?
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Active, like RAM, constantly replaced by new info and is lost if not 'saved'
can hold info for no longer than 20 sec, then disappears unless actively prevent from
happening by thinking about the info or rehearsing it
constantly bombarded with new info
Memory span and Chunking
oMemory span ~ 7 (+/- 2) items
oBunch of letters and grouping the letters to form something of more sense
oThe organization of the letters is much easier to recall because:
Memory span limited to at most 7 items, but items can be letters,
numbers, words, concepts
Meaningful units easier to remember than nonsense units
oChunking Process of organizing info into meaningful units
Greater the expertise with the material , more efficiently you can
chunk info the more you can remember
Ability to chunk info efficiently relies on long-term memory system
Working Memory
oSTM not a single storage system but rather an active processing unit that
deals with multiple types of information
oWorking Memory A 3 part active memory system that keeps information
available so that it can be used for activities such as problem solving,
reasoning, and comprehension
3 Parts :
Central Executive
Presides over the interactions between subsystems and
long-term memory the boss
Encodes info from sensory systems and filters info that
is sufficiently important to be stored in LTM
Retrieves info from LTM as needed
Relies on 2 sub-components that temporarily hold
auditory or visual info
Phonological Loop
Encodes auditory info and is active whenever read,
speak, or repeat words to self in order to remember
inner voice auditory phonological loop
easy to mistaken consonants that sound similar
then others inner voice
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words are processed in working memory by how they
sound rather than by what they mean
Visuospatial Sketchpad
processes visual information object features and
*** distinction btw auditory and visual sub-compoenents
demonstrated by injuries in patients. Some with greater
trouble with spatial layout or remembering words
STM consists much more than simply an all inclusive buffer
3. Long-Term Memory
relatively permanent storage of info
Hard disk (however LTM is nearly limitless)
odifference is in 2 important ways: duration & capacity
ocontroversy LTM whether a truly diff memory storage from STM
ofirst evidence of being separate: research showing better recall of early and
late items
oSerial Position effect better recall early + late, involves 2 effects:
Primacy effect better memory ppl have for items presented first
Recency effect better memory for most recent items
As ppl study long lists, they rehearse they rehearse the earliest
items the most (info transferred to LTM). Last few items, by contrast,
are in STM
*** recency effect alone does not prove STM and LTM are really
different types of memory storage e.g. you may remember your most
recent classes in the evening (material not held in STM)
obest support for distinction btw STM and LTM biological lvl of analysis.
H.M brain injury with STM perfectly normal and much of LTM intact but
unable to transfer new information
o*** though the 2 memory systems are highly-interdependent for instance, to
chunk info in STM, need to form meaningful connections based on info stored
in LTM
What Gets into LTM
owe are bombarded with so much info! must be some some type of filtering
system or series of rules must constrain what goes into LTM...
possible explanations?
Info enters permanent storage through rehearsal
over-learning improved memory especially over longer
periods of time
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