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Chapter 4

chapter 4 notes from text

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 4:
-Phrenology: an early method of assessing personality traits and mental abilities by
measuring bumps on the skull
-Broca’s area: the left frontal region of the brain that is crucial to the production of
-Spinal Cord: part of the central nervous systems, a rope of neural tissue that runs
inside the hollows of the vertebra from just above the pelvis and into the base of
the skull
-Grey Matter: a segment of the spinal cord that is dominated by the cell bodies of
-White Matter: A segment of the spinal cord that consists mostly of axons and the
fatty sheaths that surround them.
-Brainstem: a section of the bottom of the brain that houses the most basic
programs of survival, such as breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination and
-Reticular Formation: a large network of neural tissue within the brainstem
involved in behavioral arousal and sleep-wake cycles
-Cerebellum: a large convoluted protuberance at the back of the brainstem that is
essential for coordinated movement and balance
-Hypothalamus: a small brain structure that is vital for temperature regulation,
emotion, sexual behavior, and motivation
-Thalamus: the gateway to the brain that receives almost all incoming sensory
information before it reaches the cortex
-Hippocampus: a brain structure important for the formation of certain types of
-Basal Ganglia: a system of sub-cortical structures that are important for the
initiation of planned movement
-Cerebral Cortex: the out layer of brain tissue that forms the convoluted surface of
the brain
-Occipital lobes: a region of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain that is
important for vision
-Parietal Lobes: a region of the cerebral cortex lying in front of the occipital lobes
and behind the front lobes that is important for the sense of touch and the spatial
layout of an environment
-Temporal Loboes: the lower region of the cerebral cortex that is important for
processing auditory information and also for memory
-Frontal Lobes: the region at the front of the cerebral cortex concerned with
planning and movement
-Prefrontal Cortex: a region of the frontal loves, esp. prominent in humans,
important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social
behavior, and personality.
-Plasticity: a property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of experience,
drugs, or injury
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