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Chapter 7

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Suggestibility

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

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The capacity of the Nervous System to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge,
allowing living organisms to benefit from experience
Often incomplete, biased, distorted......... differing vastly between individuals for a specific
Who you are ~ Memories
Differ vastly from others who experience identical events (not like a video camera faithfully
capturing objective images)
Basic Stages of Memory (3 stages for Modal Memory Model)
Modal Memory Model ± 3 stage memory system that involves sensory, short-term, and long-
term memory
stage sequence
1. Sensory Memory
for sensory info stored briefly in its original sensory form
(temporary sensory buffer)
Visual sensory memory ± ICONIC memory
Auditory sensory memory ± ECHOIC memory
(iconic) [levels of delay with ability to recall?]
Iconic + echoic allow us to experience world as a continuous stream rather then discrete
Attention is the process that moves information from the sensory store to short-term memory.
Inattentional blindness!!!
2. Short-term Memory (immediate)
Limited capacity memory system holding info in awareness for a brief period of time (also info
that is retrieved from LTM), 20-30 sec?
Active, like RAM, constantly replaced by new info and is lost if not 'saved'
can hold info for no longer than 20 sec, then disappears unless actively prevent from happening
by thinking about the info or rehearsing it
constantly bombarded with new info
Memory span and Chunking
Memory span ~ 7 (+/- 2) items
Bunch of letters and grouping the letters to form something of more sense (chunking)
The organization of the letters is much easier to recall because:
Memory span limited to at most 7 items, but items can be letters, numbers, words, concepts
Meaningful units easier to remember than nonsense units

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Chunking ± Process of organizing info into meaningful units
Greater the expertise with the material , more efficiently you can chunNLQIR:WKHPRUH\RX
can remember
Ability to chunk info efficiently relies on long-term memory system
Working Memory
STM not a single storage system but rather an active processing unit that deals with multiple
types of information
Working Memory ± A 3 part active memory system that keeps information available so that it
can be used for activities such as problem solving, reasoning, and comprehension
3 Parts:
Central Executive
Presides over the interactions between subsystems and long-WHUPPHPRU\:WKHERVs
Encodes info from sensory systems and filters info that is sufficiently important to be stored in
Retrieves info from LTM as needed
Relies on 2 sub-components that temporarily hold auditory or visual info
Phonological Loop
Encodes auditory info and is active whenever read, speak, or repeat words to self in order to
remember them
words are processed in working memory by how they sound rather than by what they mean
Visuospatial Sketchpad
*** distinction btw auditory and visual sub-compoenents demonstrated by injuries in patients.
Some with greater trouble with spatial layout or remembering words
STM consists much more than simply an all inclusive buffer
3. Long-Term Memory
relatively permanent storage of info
Hard disk (however LTM is nearly limitless)
difference is in 2 important ways: duration & capacity
Serial Position effect ± better recall early + late, involves 2 effects:
Primacy effect ± better memory ppl have for items presented first
Recency effect ± better memory for most recent items
transferred to LTM). Last few items, by contrast, are in STM
*** recency effect alone does not prove STM and LTM are really different types of memory
with STM perfectly normal and much of LTM intact but unable to transfer new information
*** though the 2 memory systems are highly-interdependent ± for instance, to chunk info in
STM, need to form meaningful connections based on info stored in LTM
What Gets into LTM
of rules must constrain what goes into LTM...
possible explanations?

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Info enters permanent storage through rehearsal
over-OHDUQLQJ:LPSURYHGPHPRU\especially over longer periods of time
distributed practice > massed practice (cramming..)
*** however, simply repeating or coming into contact with something many times does not
mean that we develop long lasting memory for the event or object
info that is meaningful, organisms can benefit from experience (the worth of a dollar rather then the
features on the coin)
Different memory systems
are there diff types of memories or are all memories essentially the same?
Challenged idea in 1970: Memory is not one monolithic entity, but rather a process that involves
a number of interacting systems
Although the systems share common function to retain and use information ± they encode and
store different types of info diff ways.
Explicit Memory (Involves Conscious Effort)
Processes used to remember specific information
brought to mind (knowledge, that can be declared)
(recalling what you had for dinner)
declarative memory involves words, concepts, visual images
further distinction in explicit memory (EPISODIC + SEMANTIC)
Episodic ± one's pass experience
Semantic ± one's knowledge of trivial or important facts independent of personal experience
(knowing capitals of countries never visited; knowing 3 strikes is out in baseball having never played)
evidence of episodic and semantic as being separate in brain injuries ~ one child poor memory
for episodic but semantic was fine remembering trivial facts but not know how or when they had
remembered them...
Implicit Memory (Occurs without deliberate effort)
process by which ppl show without deliberate effort and awareness that they are remembering
GDLO\H[SHULHQFHV:EUXVKLQJWHHWKUHPHPbering how to go to class
like examples of classical conditioning in C.6. Exp fear at dentist due to past associations
(implicit memories)
does not acquire attention. Day dreaming and forgetting later what you were thinkingabout
Procedural memory (motor memory) ± motor skills, habits, behaviors employed to achieve a
can thinking about walking make movement more jerky
the indicated person as being famous because of having heard the name before but forgetting the
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