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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

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Learning and Development
Learning - an enduring change in behaviour that results from experience
oOccurs when organisms benefit from experience so that their future
behaviour is better adapted to the environment
oCrucial to survive
oBasic to complex abilities and aspects that affect our daily lives (clothing,
musical preference, environmental values)
oUnderstanding how events are related (associated)
Associations develop through a process known as conditioning 
environmental stimuli and some sort of behavioural response become
Classical conditioning occurs when we learn 2 types of events go
Operant conditioning occurs when we learn that a behaviour leads to
a particular outcome
Other types of learning Observing others
How Did the Behavioural Study of Learning Develop?
Dissatisfaction among some psychologists with widespread use of verbal reports to
assess mental states (Freudian ideas dream analysis and free association)
Watson scorned these ideas for being unscientific and focus on things that could
not be observed directly BEHAVIORISM (based on belief that animals and
humans are born with the potential to learn anything, stated that the environment
and its associated effects on organisms were the sole determinants of learning)
Behavioural responses are conditioned
oIvan Pavlov salivary reflex dogs given food and saliva is measured 
one day, Pavlov noticed dogs started salivating the moment that a lab
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technician walked into the room or when they saw bowls that usually
contained food
oGenius of Pavlov was in recognizing that this behavioural response was a
window to the working mind. Unlike inborn reflexes, salivation at the sight of
a bowl is not automatic and therefore must have been acquired through
experience. Insight of association of bowls, and lab technicians with food.
oPavlovs experiments
Neutral stimulus unrelated to salivary reflex, such as ringing bell,
presented together with a stimulus that reliably produces the reflex
(food) this pairing known as a conditioning trial is repeated a
number of times on critical trials bell sound (neutral stimulus 
conditioned stimulus) is presented alone and salivary reflex is
Classical conditioning A type of learned response that occurs
when a neutral object come to elicit a reflexive response when it is
associated with a stimulus that already produces that response
Unconditioned Response (UR) response that does not have to be
learned (reflex)
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) (meat) stimulus that elicits a
response, such as reflex, without any prior learning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) (bell) stimulus that elicits a response
only after learning has taken place
Conditioned Response (CR) response that has been learned
*CR and UR are not necessarily identical. Usually CR is less then UR
oAcquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery
Pavlov greatly influence by Darwins On the Origins of Species 
believed that conditioning was the basis for how animals learn to
adapt to environments
Acquisition gradual formation of an association between the CS
and US
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