Cognition: encoding, involves forming a memory code. Life would be a chaos: people have difficulty to focus their attention on two or more inputs simultaneously, divided attention can have negative impact on, memory, performance of a variety of tasks. Levels of processing: attention is critical to the encoding of memories, not all attention is created equal. Incoming information can be processed at different levels: in dealing with verbal information, people engage in three progressively deeper levels of processing. Structural (shallow processing: emphasizes physical structure of stimulus, capital, lowercase etc. Phonemic (intermediate processing: emphasizes what a word sounds like, involves naming or saying the word. Semantic (deeper processing: emphasizes the meaning of verbal input, involves thinking about the objects and actions the words represent, levels of processing theory. Deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes: there are other dimensions to encoding, elaboration.