• First stage in Paignets heory of cognitive development: sensorimotor stage(0-2)- infants acquire info about
the world through their senses and respond using reflexes
• Object permanence- idea that object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen(during the
• Preoperational stage(2-7)- children can think symbolically about objects, but reason is based on
appearance not logic. (using a stick as a gun)
• Children at this stage have no understanding of the law of conservation of quantity- quantity of substance
remains unchanged. (picking a higher glass of water)
• Concrete operational stage (7-12)- children begin to think about and understand operations in ways that
are reversible. (how to undo things, turn light on and off)
• Formal operational stage(12+)- abilityt to think abstractly and formulate and test hypothesis through
• However paignets thoy is contradicted because experiments show that infants as young as 3 are able to
remember an object even when it is no longer in plain sight.
• Infants respond to changing events (apple replaced by carrot) cognitive process!
• Children have an intuitive sense of laws that govern the physical world. For instance, infants use movement
to infer that objects that move together are continuous.
• We are born with certain numerical abilities: ability to understand quantity
• Infants remember longer as they got older. By 18 mnths, they remember things for weeks.
• Infantile amnesia- inability to remember events from early childhood.
• Source amnesia- forgetting where you learned smthg. Children also confabulate- make things up during
personal experiences. (text example: children +mousetrap made countless details up, added details)
• Theory of mind- ability to explain and predict other people’s behavior as a result of recognizing mental state
(ex: defense driving, knowing what they other person is thinking)
• Chilredn however according to Paignet are egocentric: can only understand their own point of view. However,
research shows children are not as egocentric as thought!
• Children also use the false belief test, in which in order to predict a persons actions, children are required to
understand that people can sometimes act on false info.
• The prefrontal lobes are involved in thoughts about others. Damage to this area makes you unable to predict
what people are thinking.
• no need for reasoning or intelligence to use theory of mind (children with Downs can do it)
• morphemes- suffixes and prefixes, phonemes- basic sounds, system of rules- syntax
• phonemes- “cat” and “pat” c and p same sound, word has diff. meaning.