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• Developmental psychology- changes in physiology, cognition, and social behaviour over the life span.
• Tetratogens: drugs, alcohol and illnesses that effect development of fetus.
• Thalidomide- medicine prescribed to women that caused birth defects in 1950s
• Fetal alcohol syndrome: low birth weight, mental retardation, and abnormal head
• Newborns have a good sense of smell (their mother’s milk recognition) and godd hearing by 6 months- turn to
direction of sound(loud sounds)
• Babies have reflexes (grasping) and the rooting reflex (breastfeeding) for survival
• Synaptic pruning- a process when synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are
preserved, and those that are not are lost.
• Critical period- developmental stage during which young animals acquire specific skills +knowledge.
(environmental input is important)
• Secure attachment- child cries when “attachment figure” leaves
• Avoidant attachment (children are insecure)- child does not cry when “attachment figure” leaves
• Anxious-ambivalent attachment (children are insecure) - child cries when attachment figure leaves. But
the rejects attachment figures, once she returns.
• Disorganized attachment- smiling when seeing the caregiver but then displaying fear
• “fit” b/w child’s temperament and the parents behaviour’s is most important in determining social
development. (lazy parents have unfit children for example)
• preferential looking technique- when babies look at new stimuli for longer
• orienting reflex- the tendency for humans to pay more attention to new stimuli
• chilrens vision becomes more capable of perceiving visual detail when the cortex and cones develop over the
first 6 months.
• Children’s ability to perceive depth develops b/w 3 and a 1/2 and 6 months of age
• Text example: cat in the hat story read by pregnant women babies learn mothers voice in womb, then make
sense of the world once born
• Children use schemas, which are conceptual models of how the world works
• Assimilation- when a new experience is placed into an existing schema
• Accomdation- when a schema is adapted or expanded to incorporate the new experience.
• First stage in Paignets heory of cognitive development: sensorimotor stage(0-2)- infants acquire info about
the world through their senses and respond using reflexes
• Object permanence- idea that object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen(during the
• Preoperational stage(2-7)- children can think symbolically about objects, but reason is based on
appearance not logic. (using a stick as a gun)
• Children at this stage have no understanding of the law of conservation of quantity- quantity of substance
remains unchanged. (picking a higher glass of water)
• Concrete operational stage (7-12)- children begin to think about and understand operations in ways that
are reversible. (how to undo things, turn light on and off)
• Formal operational stage(12+)- abilityt to think abstractly and formulate and test hypothesis through
• However paignets thoy is contradicted because experiments show that infants as young as 3 are able to
remember an object even when it is no longer in plain sight.
• Infants respond to changing events (apple replaced by carrot) cognitive process!
• Children have an intuitive sense of laws that govern the physical world. For instance, infants use movement
to infer that objects that move together are continuous.
• We are born with certain numerical abilities: ability to understand quantity
• Infants remember longer as they got older. By 18 mnths, they remember things for weeks.
• Infantile amnesia- inability to remember events from early childhood.
• Source amnesia- forgetting where you learned smthg. Children also confabulate- make things up during
personal experiences. (text example: children +mousetrap made countless details up, added details)
• Theory of mind- ability to explain and predict other people’s behavior as a result of recognizing mental state
(ex: defense driving, knowing what they other person is thinking)
• Chilredn however according to Paignet are egocentric: can only understand their own point of view. However,
research shows children are not as egocentric as thought!
• Children also use the false belief test, in which in order to predict a persons actions, children are required to
understand that people can sometimes act on false info.
• The prefrontal lobes are involved in thoughts about others. Damage to this area makes you unable to predict
what people are thinking.
• no need for reasoning or intelligence to use theory of mind (children with Downs can do it)
• morphemes- suffixes and prefixes, phonemes- basic sounds, system of rules- syntax
• phonemes- “cat” and “pat” c and p same sound, word has diff. meaning.
• Performatives- worldlike sounds learned in context, “hello” when on phone
• Telegraphic speech- baby talk “throw ball, all gone!” missing words, bad grammar!
• Gropu socialization theory- children have 2 sets of behaviour, one for inside and one for outside.
• Identity includes moral values:
1. preconventional level- answers in temr of pleasure “ i stole the drug because it makes me happy”
2. conventional level- responses conform to rules of law and order. “I should steal the drug, b/c its against
the law to steal”
3. postconventitional level- responses centre around complex reasoning. “sometimes ppl have to break the
law, if the law is unjust”
- moral emotions: shame, guilt, empathy (emerge after primary emotions such as joy)
- frontal lobes support capacity for morality
- development is considered from a life-span perspective. See table 11.1 on pg 471!
- Challenges grow as we get older, and they add meaning to our life!
- Married people tend to be healthier and live longer. b/c of support influence of behaviour (eating habits)
- Socioemotional selectivity theory- as ppl grow older, they perceive time to be limited. So, people focus more
on rewarding goals near the end of ones life
- Two mental processes that change with age are: memory and intelligence
1. memory- frontal lobes shrink as people get older, decreased ability of working memory. LTM is less
affected. They have low activation in left hemisphere, and greater in the right (has nothing to do with
2. Intelligence- decline in fluid intelligence (general knowledge) and crystallized intelligence increases
with age (knowledge learned through life.
- In spite of declines in memory and speed of mental processing however, older adults maintain their
intelligence to old age especially if they engage in social & mental activities.
• Motivation- factors that energize, direct, or persist behavior
• Need hierarchy- basic survival needs are lowest & personal growth needs are highest. Satisfaction of lower
needs allows humans to function at a higher level.
• Self-actualization- when one’s personal dreams and aspirations are attained.