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Chapter 9

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Prefrontal Cortex, Orgasm, Thalamus


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
.
Chapter
9

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Chapter 9
How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behaviour?
-Motivation: factors that energize, direct, or sustain behaviour
-> Motivational states guide behaviours toward satisfying specific goals and needs
Multiple Factors Motivate Behaviour
-Need: state of biological or social deficiency -> leads to goal-directed behaviours
-Need hierarchy: Maslow’s (1940s) arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs must be met
before people can satisfy higher needs -> humanistic psych (viewing people as striving toward personal
fulfillment)
- Maslow believed that personal growth can only be experienced after their biological needs are satisfied
-Self-actualization: a state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have been
attained
Self-actualization ^ Living to full potential, achieving personal dreams and
aspirations
Esteem I Good self-opinion, accomplishments, reputation
Belonging and love I Acceptance, friendship
Safety I Security, protection, freedom from threats
Physiological I Hunger, thirst, warmth, air, sleep
- Maslow’s theory lacks empirical support (Ex. People starve themselves in hunger strikes to
demonstrate the importance of their personal beliefs)
- Drives and Incentives
-> Arousal: physiological activation, such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses, sweating,
or muscle tension
-> Drive: physiological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs
-> Homeostasis: tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium -> Cannon (1920s)
-> The likelihood that a behaviour will occur is due to drive and habit
-> Incentives: external stimuli (as opposed to internal drives) that motivate behaviours
- Arousal and Performance
-> Yerkes-Dodson Law: performance increases with arousal until an optimal point, after which arousal
interferes with performance
- Pleasure
-> Pleasure principle: people seek pleasure and avoid pain

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-> Hedonism: humans’ desire for pleasantness
-> Behaviours associated with pleasure often promote the animal’s survival and reproduction
Some Behaviours are Motivated for Their Own Sake
-Extrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that
activity is directed (Ex. Working to earn a paycheque)
-Intrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated
with that activity, rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose (Ex. Solving puzzles, listening to
music, playing)
- Some intrinsically motivated activities may satisfy our natural curiosity and creativity
- Self-Determination Theory and Self-Perception Theory
-> Self-determination theory: people are motivated to satisfy needs for competence, relatedness to
others, and autonomy/sense of personal control
-> Extrinsic rewards may reduce intrinsic value because such rewards undermine people’s feeling that
they are choosing to do something for themselves
-> Self-perception theory: people seldom are aware of their specific motives and instead draw
inferences about their motivations according to what seems to make the most sense (Ex. You drink a
glass of water and think that you must’ve been thirsty, even though you were unaware of any physical
sensation of thirst)
-> Rewarding people for engaging in an intrinsic activity replaces the goal of pure pleasure and is now
not really intrinsic
People Set Goals to Achieve
-Self-regulation: process by which people alter or change their behaviour to attain personal goals
-Self-efficacy: expectancy that your efforts will lead to success
-Achievement motive: desire to do well relative to standards of excellence
- Delayed Gratification
-> Common challenge of self-regulation is postponing immediate gratification in the pursuit of long-term
goals
-> Delay of gratification: process of transcending immediate temptations to achieve long-term goals
-> Turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions -> mentally transforming the desired object into something
undesired
-> Subcortical brain regions such as the amygdala and nucleus accumbens are important for motivating
behaviour
People Have a Need to Belong
-Need to belong theory: need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved
for adaptive purposes
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- Making and keeping friends is a basic motive driving behaviour
- Misery loves miserable company (Ex. Electric shock study)
-Social comparison theory: we are motivated to have accurate info about ourselves and others;
Festinger (1954)
What Determines How We Eat?
Time and Taste Play Roles
- We eat because we have been classically conditioned to associate eating with regular mealtimes
- Main factor that motivates eating is flavour, good-tasting and variety
-Sensory-specific satiety: phenomenon in which animals will stop eating relatively quickly if they have
just one type of food to eat, but they will eat more if presented with a different type of food
-Frontal lobe regions are involved in assessing food’s reward value
Culture Determines What We Eat
- What people will eat is determined by a combination of personal experience and cultural beliefs
-Neophobia: fear of novel things
- People avoid unfamiliar foods because they may be dangerous or poisonous -> adaptive for survival
Multiple Neural Processes Control Eating
-Hypothalamus is the brain structure that most influences eating ; integrates the inhibitory and excitatory
feeding messages and organizes behaviours involved in eating
-Hyperphagia: when the middle of the hypothalamus, the ventromedial, is damaged, great quantities of
food are consumed
-Aphagia: when the outer layer, or lateral area, is damaged, this results in diminished eating behaviour
-Prefrontal cortex processes taste cues; cravings triggered by sight is associated with the limbic system
-Gourmand syndrome: people become obsessed with fine food and food preparation
- Internal Sensations
-> Glucostatic theory: explanation of hunger saying that the bloodstream is monitored for its glucose
levels (glucose is the primary fuel for metabolism and crucial for neuronal activity)
-> Lipostatic theory: a set-point for body fat in which deviations from the set-point initiate
compensatory behaviours to return to homeostasis
-> Leptin: hormone involved in fat regulation
-> Ghrelin: hormone that affects/triggers eating
What Factors Motivate Sexual Behaviour?
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