!althought drive states push us to reduce arousal, we are also pulled toward certain things in our
!incentives: are external objects, rather than internal drives, that motivate behaviours.
-Yerks-Dodson law dictates that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point, after
which it decreases with increasing arousal, thus creating a shape like an inverted U.
!ex: you perform best on exams when you have a moderate level of anxiety.
-Arousal, then, not only motivates us to satisfy basic needs, but an optimal amount of arousal is
also desirable on its own.
Pleasure Can Motivate Adaptive Behaviours
-motivation can be viewed as a capability that initiates, directs, and sustains behaviours that
promote survival and reproduction.
-arouse behaviours that solve adaptive problems.
-Sigmund Freud – drives are satisfied according to the pleasure principle, which tells organism to
seek pleasure and avoid pain.
-ex: sex. We have sex because it feels good, but it is also essential for survival of species.
-From an evolutionary perspective, behaviours associated with pleasure are often those that
promote the animal’s survival and reproduction, whereas behaviours associated with pain interfere
with survival and reproduction.
Some Behaviours are Motivated for their Own Sake
-Extrinistic motivation emphasizes the external goals toward which an activity is directed, such as
drive reduction or reward.
!ex: working hard to earn a paycheck at the end of the week.
-Intrinstic motivation refers to the value of pleasure that is associated with an activity but that
has no apparent biological goal or purpose.
!ex: listening to music. Intrinstic motivated behaviours are performed for their own sake.
Curiosity and Play
-curiosity is a mental state that leads to intrinsically motivated behaviour.
-Playful exploration is characteristic of all mammals and especially primate.
-One obvious function of play is that it lets us learn about objects in the environment; this clearly
has survival value.
Creativity and Problem Solving
-many intrinsically motivated behaviours allow people to express creativity.
-Creativity is the tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in solving problems,
communicating, and entertaining ourselves and others.