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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Learning and Reward - Textbook Reading

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Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 6: Learning and Reward
o Stimulus generalization Æ occurs when stimuli that are similar nut not identical to the
CS produce the CRÆ e.g. bell ring at different frequency will produce a slightly
responsive CR
o Stimulus discrimination Æ animal learn to differentiate between two similar stimuli if
one consistently associated with the US and the other is not Æ different shade of grey
o Second-ordered conditioning Æ e.g. money = paper or cheap metal Æ different
meaning to people Æ paper and what it buys makes us have it
- Phobia Æ acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat
o Fear conditioning Æ conditioned to fear neutral objects Æ e.g. light + shock Æ shared
of light
o Counter-conditioning Æ imagine feared object while in relaxed states
o Drug addiction Æ e.g CS Æ coffee Æ CR Æ alertness
Heron addicts are exposed to environmental cues associated with drug use Æ
experienced craving Æ withdrawal
Tolerance for drug increases when taken at location of previous drug usage Æ
increase dosage of drug intake
- Albert B.
present white rat, bang (loud noise), he cries => do that for 5 weeks => the baby was
scared when white rat was there => strong response (5 days later still scared, baby don't
have good memory) => emotionally remember the rate generalized, response to Santa
mask and rabbit and stiff, all produced fear response, one month late still scared
Classical Conditioning Involves More than Contiguity
- Evolutionary Significance
o Eqipotentiaity Æ any stimuli could produce equal conditioning (not the case)
o Poison in food Æ animal could likely associate certain flavour of food with illness Æ
avoid that flavour to increase survival
o Biological preparedness Æ Animals are biologically programmed to learn to fear
specific object
E.g. rat can easily condition in taste aversion where as bird quickly learn from
visual cue
o Cognitive perspective
Most consider animal is about to predict the occurrence of events
x E.g. CS need to be accurate predictor of the US Æ e.g. eye-blink Æ
sound CS associated with air blown into eye US needs to blinking
x Rescorla Wagner model Æ cognitive model of classical condition that
states that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the
extent to which the US is unexpected Æ the greater the surprise of the
US, the more effort an organism would put into trying to understand its
occurrence so it a predict more accurately in future
How is Operant Conditioning Different from Classical Conditioning

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