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Lecture and textbook reading for TT1. CH 2 and 5 missing. This is a repost

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Michael Inzlicht

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Term Test 1 Study Notes CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Introduction - The goal of psychology today is to understand people by considering both individual factors, Z ZZZ}Z}L[Z]L} ZZZ]L}K]}L}}ZZ7L }Lo }Z7Z Z as how societal beliefs shape how we behave toward those other people - Psychological science is the study of mind, brain and behavior o Mind mental activity thoughts and feelings o Mental activity is the results of biological processes within the brain, such as the action of nerve cells and chemical reaction o Behavior --< wide variety of actions from the subtle to most complex What are the themes of psychological science? - The principles of psychological science are cumulative o Knowledge accumulates based on systematic study of questions raised by what is already known o relies on empirical evidence and builds on previous discoveries in a dynamic way - A new biological revolution is energizing Research o discoveries in brain activity have been enhanced by the discoveries of neurotransmitters. o Mapping of the human genome has furthered the role of genetics in analyzing disease and behavior o Tremendous advances in brain imaging have revealed the working brain. - The mind is adaptive o the brain has evolved to solve survival problems and adapt to environments. Many modern behaviors are by-products of adaptationevolutionary theory theory in which the inherited adaptive value of behavior and mental activity throughout the entire history of a specie o Culture provides adaptive solutionsLdevelopes a strong framework for a shared social understanding of how the world works Culture beliefs, values, rules and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next o Solving adaptive problems Evolutionary theory solutions to these adaptive problems are built into the brain and therefore require no special training :2:]LL[Z}Z]2Z - Psychological science crosses levels of analysis o SocialLculture and interpersonal behaviour o IndividualLpersonality, perception and cognition o BiologicalLbrain systems, neurochemistry, genetics www.notesolution.comTerm Test 1 Study Notes What are the Intellectual origins of psychology? - Nature-nurture debate o Whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture i.e. mental disorders are a result of both environmental circumstances and heritable genes; same with posttraumatic stress disorder - mind-body problem o whether mind and body are separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical brain o Leonardo da Vinci concluded that there is one location of the brain that is the home of thought and judgementLsensus communis o Rene Descartes thought the mind and body were separate yet intertwinedLdualism Mind could affect the body, the body could also affect the mind - Evolutionary theory o Natural selectionLrandom mutations that are adaptive are passed along and mutations that kinder reproduction are not How did the scientific Foundations of psychology develop? - Structuralism o 1879: Wilhelm Wundt: established first psychology laboratory and institute in Leipzig N Regarded as the founder of experimental psychology as an academic discipline o Based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements o IntrospectionLa systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that required people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts This method was used by Edward Titchener, but rejected by Wundt - Functionalism o Concerned with the function of mind and behavior, and not its structures o William James o Stream of consciousnessLZ ]Z}L[Z }L]L}ZZ]Z}ever-changing thoughts - The unconscious o Mental processes that operate low below the level of conscious awareness o Sigmund Freud www.notesolution.comTerm Test 1 Study Notes o PsychoanalysisLa method to attempt bringing the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed - Behaviourism o Emphasizes the role of environmental forces of producing behavior o Johb B. Watsoninfluenced by Ivan Pavlov But B.F Skinner became famous for it N Believed mental states were noting more than an illusion Claimed the study of the mind was too subjective and therefore unscientific - Cognitive revolution psychology o George A. Miller o Concerned with higher-order mental functions, such as intelligence, thinking, language, decision making o Gestalt psychology a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements o Gestalt psychology[s patterns and context in learning: the assertion that the whole experience is different from the sum of its parts led to an approach emphasizing the subjective experience of perception. - Social psychology o Focuses on the power of situation and how people are shaped through their interactions with others - Psychological therapy o Humanistic approach lead by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow People can come to know and accept themselves in order to reach their unique potentials o No universal treatment of disorders How can we Apply Psychological Science? - Psychological scientistLone who uses the methods of science to study the interplay between brain, mind, and behavior and how the social environment affects these processe - Psychological practiontionersLapply findings from psychological science in order to assist people with their daily lives - Social psychologistsLinfluences that other situations and people have on how we act, think, and feel - Personality psychologistsLinterested in individual preferences - Developemental psychologistsLaddress changes in mind and behavior over the life span - Congnitive psychologyLconcerned with the mental processes such as thinking, perceiving, remembering, and decision making - Cognitive neuroscienceLthe brain systems involved in learning www.notesolution.com
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