-the latest version consists of 567 true/false items that assess emotions, thoughts, and
-ten clinical scales and the way a person scores on these scales produces a particular
profile that indicates whether he or she may have a particular mental disorder.
-a common problem with all self-report assessments, is that people do not necessarily
-to counter these response biases, the MMPI contains validity scales that measure the
probability that people are being less than truthful
-Other validity scales examine whether the text taker answers similar questions in the
same manner each time, endorses items that are extremely rare, and endorses and
especially large number of negative items.
-MMPI is has been criticized because it may not be appropriate for use in other countries
or with groups such as the poor, elderly, or racial minorities.
-tests such as the MMPI are widely used in psychological assessment, but they are
seldom the sole source of information.
Mental Disorders Have Many Causes
-Freud believed that mental disorders were due to mostly unconscious conflicts, often
sexual in nature that dated back to childhood.
-consistent with this perspective, many disorders in the first edtion of the DSM were
described as reactions to environmental conditions or as involving various defense
-Psychological factors play an important role in the manifestation and treatment of mental
-at the social level of analysis, thoughts, and emotions are shaped by the environment and
can profoundly influence behaviour, including abnormal behaviour.
-The Family Systems model is based on the idea that the behaviour of an individual must
be considered within a social context, in particular the family.
-the sociocultural model views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between
individuals and their cultures.
-schizophrenia, are more common among the lower socioeconomic classes, such as
anorexia nervosa are more common among the middle and upper classes.
-differences in lifestyles, expectations, and opportunities among the classes of society.
-that it is possible that there are cultural biases in the willingness to ascribe disorders to
different social classes.
Cognitive Behavioral Factors
-at the level of the individual, the central principle of the cognitive behavioural approach
is that abnormal behaviour is learned.
-the psychoanalytic approach focuses on unconscious internal factors, the behavioral
approach is based on observable variables.
-proponents of strict behaviorism argue that mental disorders are the result of classical
and operant conditioning
-the revised cognitive behavioral perspective includes the idea that thoughts and beliefs
should be considered as another type of behavior that can be tudied empirically.
-thoughts can become distorted and produce maladaptive behaviours and emotions.