-Albert Ellis, rational emotive therapy, in which therapists act as teachers who explain and demonstrate more
adaptive ways of thinking and behaving
-cognitive behavioral therapy which incorporates techniques from behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy
Group Therapy Builds Social Support
-therapists realized that group therapy offers advantages that make it preferable to individual therapy in
-the group setting provides opportunity for members to improve their social skills and to learn from each
-this type of group has been effective for disorders such as bulimia and OCD.
-the social support that group members can provide each other is one of the most beneficial aspects of group
therapy, and attendance at group therapy is often used to augment individual psychotherapy
Family therapy Focuses on the Family Context
-according to a systems approach, an individual is part of a larger context, and any change in individual
behavior will affect the whole system
-family members can have a tremendous impact on client outcomes
-the importance of the family to the long-term prognosis of schizophrenia pateitns has been documented in
studies of the attitudes expressed by family members toward the patient
-negative expressed emotion includes making critical comments about the patient, being hostile toward them,
or emotionally overinvolved.
-correspond to the relapse rate for patients with schizophrenia
-because family attitudes are often critical to long0term prognoses, some therapists insist that family
members be involved in therapy
Biological Therapies Are Necessary for Some Disorders
-biological therapies are based on the notion that mental illness results from abnormalities in neural and
bodily processes, such as imbalances in specific neurotransmitters or malfunctions in certain brain regions
-drugs have prove to be quite effective for treating many mental disorders.
-those that act on the brain to affect !"# processes are known as psychotropic medications.
-anti anxiety drugs, commonly called tranquilizers, are used for the short-term treatment of anxiety
-a second class is the antidepressants, which are used to treat depression
-MAO inhibitors were the first antidepressants to be discovered.
-an enzyme that converts serotonin into another chemical form
-MAO inhibitors therefore result in more serotonin being available in the synapses of the brain
-raise levels of norepinephrine and dopamine
-Antipsychotics are used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders that involve psychosis
-traditional antipsychotics bind to dopamine receptors without activating them, which blocks the effects of
-antipsychotics aren’t always effective and have significant side effects that can be irreversible such as
tardive dyskinesia, the involuntary twitching of muscles, especially in the neck and face
-clozapine, acts not only on dopamine receptors but also on serotonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and
Common Factors Enhance Treatment
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Therapy
-the majority of respondents felt that intervention had helped them, and those who sought help from mental
health professionals reported more positive results than those who consulted with a family doctor
-patients whose choice of therapists or duration of treatment were limited for insurance reasons had the
-their experiences with treatment for anxiety and mood disorders.
-two notable finding emerged
1) many more people received drugs in 2004 compared to 1994
2) those who received both drugs and psychotherapy reported the best outcomes, followed by those receiving
only psychotherapy and then those receiving only drugs.
-the conclusion from this study was that therapy helps but the type does not matter