Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSG (10,000)
PSY (3,000)
PSY100H1 (2,000)
Chapter 4

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Spinal Cord, Cerebellum, Subliminal Stimuli


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
doldeman
Chapter
4

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Chapter 4
Phrenology: based on idea of functional localization, assess personality traits/mental abilities by
measuring bumps on skull
- Franz Gall and Johann Spurzheim
oFlourens (critic) thought that brain worked as single unit
oKarl Lashley: believed in equipotentiality: all parts of the cortex contributed equally to
mental abilities
We know today that brain is a patchwork of highly specialized areas
Broca’s area: first strong evidence supporting a specialized brain
- the left frontal region of the brain that is crucial to the production of language
Mind is adaptive: Brain’s specialized mechanisms regulate breathing, food intake, sexual behavior,
bodily fluids & sensory systems, some basic roles have changed little over evolution, e.g. breathing
Spinal cord
-Part of CNS, a rope of neural tissue that runs from pelvis to base of skull
-Segmented into 2 tissue types:
ogrey matter, dominated by cell bodies of neurons
owhite matter, mostly axons and myelin sheaths
odistinguishable in brain as well
relays info, also controls spinal reflex: conversion of sensation to action (e.g.
stretch reflex)
Thickens into brainstem
-Houses the most basic roles of survival: breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, orgasm.
-Because it is a continuation of spinal cord, performs for head similar to what spinal cord does for
rest of body
oComplement of reflexes analogous to spinal reflexes.
E.g. gagging
-Has nerves connecting to skin and muscles of head and specialized sensory organs of head like
eyes and ears.
-Includes reticular formation: large network of neurons within brainstem involved in general
arousal (behavioral, sleep-wake cycles). It is also involved in inducing and terminating the
different stages of sleep
Cerebellum
-large convoluted protuberance at the back of the brainstem that is essential for coordinated
movement & balance
-“Little Brain”, needed for motor function, motor learning, functional imaging, ataxia:
clumsiness
ABOVE cerebellum and brain stem is the Forebrain
-two cerebral hemispheres
ocerebral cortex
osubcortical regions
hypothalamus
thalamus
hippocampus
amygdale
basal ganglia
many of these part of limbic system—separating the evolutionary order
(brainstem, cerebellum) and new (cerebral cortex)
include basic drives, eating, drinking, emotions
Subcortical regions
Hypothalamus: REGULATION of body, controls pituitary glands i.e. hormones (master gland), smaller in
women/gay men
Thalamus: GATWAY to brain, receives all income sensory info except smell, shuts gate during sleep, some
role in attention
Hippocampus: MEMORY, creates new interconnections within cortex (grey matter expands from each
new experience)
Amygdala: EMOTION, overrules instinct, emotional/sexual arousal, plays special role in stimuli that makes
FEAR
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version