chapter 7 summary
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Chapter 7- Memory
H.M. has problems with memory due to seizure; part of brain removed
Able to learn motor skills without himself realizing (can’t remember the tasks he
Unable to Transfer Short Term memory into Long Term Memory
Memory- The capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and
knowledge, allowing living organisms to benefit from experiences.
Modal Memory Model- The three-stages of memory system; Sensory input
Sensory Memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory
Sensory Memory- Temporary memory; visual (Iconic Memory) and Audio (Echoic
Memory). Allows us to view the world in a continuous stream
George Sperling Experiment- Flashed 3 rows of letters for 1/20 second
Results: Participants were able to do task well without further delay.
Short Term Memory- Limited capacity memory system that holds information in
awareness for a brief period of time. (ie RAM of computer) (7 +/- 2 Memories)
Memory Span and Chunking- Make the stuff meaningful and will be able to learn
Working memory- An active processing system that keeps different types of
information available for current use. (ie Baddeley’s Working Memory System)
Long Term Memory Central Executive (Coordinate Material) ()Phonological
Loop (Speech, words, numbers)
() Visuospatial sketchpad
Central executive- encodes the information from the sensory system and then filters
information that is sufficiently important to be stored in long term memory.
Long Term Memory- the relatively permanent storage of information (unlimited
Easier to recognize rather than Recall
Serial Position Effect- Primacy Effect; better memory for items presented first.
Recency Effect; better memory for items presented later
Rehearsal allows information to become permanent.
Distributed practice is better than massed practice (cramming)
Evolutionary Theory helps explain how memory might be useful
The selective advantage for survival are from past experiences. (recognize
predators and avoid being eaten)
Strategy for improving Memory
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Get some sleep
Scientist have not yet agree on the number of human memory systems
Explicit Memory- The processes involved when people remember specific
information. (Processes of memory) ie What you had for dinner last night
Two Types include Episodic Memory and Semantic Memory
Declarative Memory- Cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory;
knowledge that can be declared. (Content of Memory)
Episodic Memory- Memory for one’s personal past experience.
Semantic Memory- Memory for knowledge about the world. ie. Know the capital of
other countries that you never visited.
Implicit Memory- The process by which people show an enhancement of memory,
most often through behaviour, without deliberate effort and without any awareness
that they are remembering anything. ie Classical conditioning
Procedural memory (motor memory)- A type of implicit memory that involves
motor skills and behavioural habits Automatic, unconscious aspect. ie Advertisers use
implicit memory to get customers.
False Fame effect- Assume someone is famous cause you heard of the name before.
Repetition Priming- The improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that
has previously been experienced.
Long Term Memory is a Temporal Sequence
Memory can be divided temporally into three processes; encoding, storage, and
Encoding- The processing of information so that it can be stored.
Storage- The retention of encoded representation over time that corresponds to some
change in the nervous system that registers the event.
Retrieval- The act of recalling or remembering stored information in order to use it
(involves both implicit and explicit memory system)
Long term memory is based on meanings
Crank and Lockhart proposed that different types of rehearsal lead to differential
Maintenance Rehearsal- A type of encoding that involves continually repeating an
Elaborative Rehearsal- The encoding of information in a more meaningful fashion,
such as linking it to knowledge in long term memory.
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