Chapter 8- Thinking and Intelligence
Our thoughts guide much of our behaviour as we problem solve, make decisions
try to make sense of events going on around us.
Cognition- Mental activity such as thinking or representing information
There are two types of representations: Analogical and symbolic.
Analogical representation- A mental representation that has some of the physical
characteristics of an object; it is analogous to the object ie family tree represent the
relation between family.
Symbolic representation- A abstract mental representation that does not correspond
to the physical features of an object or idea. Ie knowing the word violin represents an
Roger Shepard- made experiment where participants were asked to view letters
and determine if they are mirror image or normal.
Found out took participants longer depending on how much the letter was
Primary Visual Cortex was activate during demonstration of analogical
Concepts are symbolic representations
Categorization- grouping thing together based on shared properties.
Concepts- A mental representation that groups or categorizes objects, events, or
relations around common themes.
Defining attribute model- The idea that a concept is characterized by a list of
features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category.
Make exceptions in the categorization.
Letting members into groups that do not have all the attributes or excluding them
if they have all ie Birds can fly, but penguins are birds too when they can’t fly
When we think of birds we don’t think them as warm blooded, whereas having
wings comes first to mind.
Boundaries between categories are much fuzzier and more indistinct than the
defining attribute model suggested
Prototype Model- An approach to object categorization that is based on the premise
that within each category, some members are more representative than others.
Ie Bachelor; unmarried male single…we would usually think of bachelors as a 20
year old man who dates a lot (the prototypical exampler), but 25 year old guy in a
long term relationship is also a bachelor.
Script- An sequence of events that arise in a given situation.
Essential Elements of Schemas: