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Chapter 1

Chapter 1


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Chapter
1

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Chapter 14: Emotion, Reward, Aggression and Stress
-Emotion
oHas a physical sensation(rapid heartbeat) and a subjective feeling(feeling scared)
-Evolution of Emotion
oGeneral Arousal( when the brain realizes that an action must occur, emotions
provide an arousal that triggers a response)
oEmotions manage our approach and withdrawal behaviours relative to particular
environmental stimuli
oHelping our communication
Non verbal communication(facial expression and body language)
-Expression and recognition of emotion
oControlling facial Expression
Great attention is placed on the face, more specifically on the eyes. An
infant who is incapable of verbally communicating likes to gaze into a
persons face instead of other visual stimuli
Movement of the face is controlled by two cranial nerves:
Facial Nerve: controls the superficial muscles attached to the skin
and primarily responsible for facial expressions
oHas 5 major branches, each serves a different part of the
face;
oOriginate in the two facial nuclei, which dont
communicate with each other, that receive info from
primary motor cortex located in pre-central gyrus
Trigeminal Nerve: controls the deeper facial muscles attached to
the bones of the head that are responsible for chewing food and
speaking
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Upper Third of the face receives input from ipsilateral and contralateral
facial nerves, lower two thirds of the face are controlled by contralateral
facial nerves
Damage to motor cortex of one hemisphere effects only the
contralateral lower face
Two major pathways control facial expressions
One involves input from the motor cortex
oResponsible for voluntary expression
oPeople with Volicional Facial Paresis(damage to the
primary motor cortex) are unable to smile voluntarily on
the side of the mouth contralateral to their damage; but ca
still show spontaneous activity on the paralyzed side the
face
One involves subcortical system
oResponsible for spontaneous expression
oParkinsons can limit the ability to smile spontaneously
oBiological Influences on Emotional Expression
Some major emotional expressions are universal across human
cultures(anger, sadness, happiness, fear, disgust, surprise, contempt,
embarrassment)
oEnvironmental Influences on Emotion
Presence of other influences the intensity of our emotional expression
Blind Babies learn to socially smile at the same age as sighted babies;
blind adults can express the same types of facial expressions as sighted
adults although people report having a hard time understanding them with
the exception of happiness
oIndividual Differences in Emotion
Infants that are highly reactive to environmental stimuli are more likely to
have anxiety and mood disorders later on
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Extremely low reacting babies have a higher chance of developing
antisocial behaviour
Differences associated with amygdala, which interprets emotional
stimuli; major depressive disorder has higher activity levels in
amygdale
oLiars
Stuttering, stiffening upperbody, swinging lower body, less nodding and
less hand gestures
Polygraph tests
33% of innocents were claimed guilty; 25% guilty claimed
innocent; antisocial personality disorders can fool this as they lack
general arousal and dont see lying as wrong
-Theories of Emotion
oThe James Lange Theory
Physical state provides cues for the identification of emotional state
Smile... feel happy; cry... feel sad
Empathy: ability to relate to the feeling of another person
Catharsis: relief of tension through expression of emotion
oThe CanonBard Theory
The Perceived stimulus causes simultaneous activation of physical
responses and the subjective feeling, but independently
Bear walks into the room: subjective feeling of fear and physical
fight/flight response
oThe Schachter Singer Theory
Perceived stimulus causes general arousal, then a cognitive approasal
which then leads to the identification of an emotional state
oContemporary Theories of Emotion
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