Textbook Notes (381,164)
CA (168,381)
UTSG (11,042)
PSY (2,994)
PSY100H1 (1,839)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Research Methods

4 Pages

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Chapter 2 The Research Enterprise in Psychology
The Scientific Approach to Behavior
Goals of the Scientific Enterprise
Psychologists and scientists share 3 goals:
Measurement and description
develop measurement techniques to describe behavior.
Understanding and prediction
able to explain the reason why something happened, using
(uncertain statement about the relationship b/n variables) and
conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in the study).
Application and
info gathered are used to help/improve/treat the community.
Theory (a logical network of explanatory ideas)
Hypotheses (specific predictions derived from theory)
Empirical Research (conduct study to test hypotheses):
Findings support H
Increase in confidence of the theory
Findings dont support H
decrease in confidence of the theory
revise or discard theory
Steps in a Scientific Investigation
Formulate a Testable Hypothesis formulate H + define V through
operational definition
(describes action/operation that will be used to measure/control variable).
Select the Research Method and Design the Study research methods [such as experiments,
case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation, etc] depends on the nature of question under the
study, which is the most appropriate and practical. Then make detailed plans [what kind of
experiment, who are the participants, how many, where].
are the
persons/animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study.
Collect the Data procedures for making empirical observations and measurements.
Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions observation results are converted to numbers, use
statistics to analyze data, decide whether H is supported or not.
Report the Findings write a concise summary of the study and its findings, submit the report to
(publishes technical and scholarly material) for publication.
Advantages of the Scientific Approach
; scientific approach allows communication about important ideas.
; yields more accurate and dependable info.
Research Method
(strategies for conducting studies)
approaches to the observation,
measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies.

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
1 Chapter 2 –The Research Enterprise in Psychology TheScientificApproachtoBehavior Goalsof theScientificEnterprise Psychologistsandscientistsshare3goals: 1. Measurement anddescription–developmeasurement techniquestodescribebehavior. 2. Understandingandprediction–abletoexplainthereasonwhysomethinghappened,using hypothesis(uncertainstatement about therelationshipb/nvariables)andvariables(measurable conditions,events, characteristics,or behaviorsthat arecontrolledor observedinthestudy). 3. Applicationandcontrol–infogatheredareusedto help/improve/treatthecommunity. Theory(alogicalnetworkof explanatoryideas)Æ Hypotheses(specificpredictionsderivedfromtheory) Æ EmpiricalResearch(conduct studyto test hypotheses): N Findingssupport HÆ Increaseinconfidenceof thetheory N Findingsdon’t support HÆ decreaseinconfidenceof thetheoryÆ reviseor discardtheory StepsinaScientificInvestigation 1) FormulateaTestableHypothesis–formulateH+defineVthroughoperational definition (describesaction/operationthatwillbeusedtomeasure/control variable). 2) Select theResearchMethodand DesigntheStudy–researchmethods[such asexperiments, casestudies,surveys,naturalisticobservation,etc] dependsonthenatureof questionunder the study,whichisthemost appropriateand practical. Thenmakedetailedplans[whatkindof experiment,whoaretheparticipants, how many,where]. Participants/subjectsarethe persons/animalswhosebehavior issystematicallyobservedinastudy. 3) Collect theData–proceduresfor makingempirical observationsandmeasurements. 4) AnalyzetheDataandDrawConclusions–observation resultsareconvertedto numbers,use statisticstoanalyzedata,decidewhether Hissupportedor not. 5) Report theFindings–writeaconcisesummaryof thestudyanditsfindings,submit thereport to ajournal (publishestechnicalandscholarlymaterial)for publication. Advantagesof theScientificApproach CLARITYandPRECISION; scientificapproachallowscommunicationabout important ideas. RELATIVEINTOLERANCEOFERROR; yieldsmoreaccurateanddependableinfo. ResearchMethod(strategiesfor conductingstudies)Æ approachesto theobservation, measurement,manipulation,andcontrol of variablesinempiricalstudies. www.notesolution.com 2 Lookingfor Causes:Experimental Research Experiment isaresearchmethodinwhichtheinvestigator manipulatesavariableunder carefully controlledconditionsand observeswhether anychangesoccur inasecondvariableasaresult. (Useful todetect cause-and-effect relationships). Independent/Dependent Variables, Experimental/ControlGroup, andExtraneousVariables Independent variable =condition/event thatanexperimenter variesinorder toseeitsimpact on another variable. Dependent variable=variablethatisthought tobeaffectedbymanipulationof the independent variable. ExperimentalgroupÆ consistsof thesubjectswho receivesomespecialtreatment inregardtothe independent variable. Control groupÆ consistsof thosesimilarsubjectswhodonot receivethespecial treatment giventotheexperimentalgroup. ™ If thetwogroupsarealikeinall respectsexcept for thevariationcreatedbythe manipulationof theindependent variable,anydifferencesbetweenthetwogroupson the dependent variablemust beduetothemanipulationof theindependent variable . Extraneousvariables=anyvariablesother thantheindependent variablethatseemlikelytoinfluence thedependent variableinaspecificstudy. Confoundingof variables=whentwovariablesarelinked together inawaythat makesit difficult toisolatetheeffect of theindependent variableonthe dependent variable. Randomassignment of subjects=all subjectshaveanequalchanceof being assignedtoanygroupor conditioninthestudy. VariationsinDesigningExperiments 1) Usingonegroupof subjectsasbothexperimentalandcontrol group(eliminatesanyextraneous variablesinvolvingpersonal characteristics,etc) 2) Manipulatemorethanoneindependent variableinasingleexperiment. 3) Usemorethanonedependent variable. Anexperiment isapowerful researchmethodthat permits conclusionsabout cause-and-effect relationshipsbetweenvariables. However,theexperimentalmethodisoftennot usablefor aspecific problem,andmanyexperimentstendtobeartificial(fake) . Lookingfor links:Descriptive/Correlational Research Psychologistscannot exert experimentalcontrol over somevariablestheywant tostudyfor either ethicalor practicalreasons(ie. effectsof nutritiousandnon-nutritiousmaternaldietsonthe healthof babies). Therefore,investigatorsmust relyondescriptive/correlationalresearchmethods (naturalisticobservation,casestudies,and surveys)–researcherscannot manipulatethevariables under thestudy . Descriptive/correlationalmethodspermit investigatorstoonlydescribepatternsof behavior anddiscover linksor associationsbetweenvariables. www.notesolution.com 3 NaturalisticObservation, CaseStudies, andSurveys ™ Innaturalisticobservation,aresearcher engagesincareful observationof behavior without interveningdirectlywiththesubjects. o A: minimizesartificiality; canbeagoodplacetostart whenlittleisknownabout phenomenaunder study o DA: oftendifficult to remainunobtrusive; can’t explainwhycertainpatternsof behavior wereobserved. ™ Acasestudyisanin-depthinvestigationof anindividualsubject usingdirect int
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.