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Chapter 2

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Standard Deviation, Dependent And Independent Variables


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Chapter
2

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Chapter 2 The Research Enterprise in Psychology
The Scientific Approach to Behavior
Goals of the Scientific Enterprise
Psychologists and scientists share 3 goals:
1.
Measurement and description
develop measurement techniques to describe behavior.
2.
Understanding and prediction
able to explain the reason why something happened, using
hypothesis
(uncertain statement about the relationship b/n variables) and
variables
(measurable
conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in the study).
3.
Application and
control
info gathered are used to help/improve/treat the community.
Theory (a logical network of explanatory ideas)
Æ
Hypotheses (specific predictions derived from theory)
Æ
Empirical Research (conduct study to test hypotheses):
x
Findings support H
Æ
Increase in confidence of the theory
x
Findings dont support H
Æ
decrease in confidence of the theory
Æ
revise or discard theory
Steps in a Scientific Investigation
1)
Formulate a Testable Hypothesis formulate H + define V through
operational definition
(describes action/operation that will be used to measure/control variable).
2)
Select the Research Method and Design the Study research methods [such as experiments,
case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation, etc] depends on the nature of question under the
study, which is the most appropriate and practical. Then make detailed plans [what kind of
experiment, who are the participants, how many, where].
Participants/subjects
are the
persons/animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study.
3)
Collect the Data procedures for making empirical observations and measurements.
4)
Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions observation results are converted to numbers, use
statistics to analyze data, decide whether H is supported or not.
5)
Report the Findings write a concise summary of the study and its findings, submit the report to
a
journal
(publishes technical and scholarly material) for publication.
Advantages of the Scientific Approach
CLARITY and PRECISION
; scientific approach allows communication about important ideas.
RELATIVE INTOLERANCE OF ERROR
; yields more accurate and dependable info.
Research Method
(strategies for conducting studies)
Æ
approaches to the observation,
measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies.
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