Chapter 3 the biological bases of behaviour. The cells in the nervous system fall into two major categories: glia and neurons. Neurons = individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information. Majority of them communicate with other neurons but a minority receive signals from sensory organs or carry messages to the muscles. Soma (cell body) contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells. Dendrites the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information. Axon a long, thin fibre that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Myelin sheath insulation material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons. Terminal buttons small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters. Synapse a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another. Glia = cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons.