PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Psychodynamics, Phallic Stage, Social Rejection

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15 Apr 2012

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Chapter 13 1
Chapter 13: Personality
Bold=Key term
Italicized=not a key term but important
(I) How Do Psychologists Study Personality?
Personality: dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine
his characteristic behavior and thought
Personality is organized ( its it not a list of traits but a whole ) , its dynamic ( its goal seeking,
sensitive to context and adaptive to environment ) its psychophysical ( personality arises from
biological processes )
Freud: Psychodynamic Theory:
Freed observes patients with disturbances and comes up with the psychodynamic theory: unconscious
forces influence behavior, Freud called it instincts: mental representations arising from biological or
physical needs.
Freud says people satisfy life’s instincts by following the pleasure principle (go for pleasure and avoid pain)
which is driven by an energy called libido
Topographic model mind separated to 3 zones:
o Conscious level- ppl aware of thoughts ,
o Preconscious thought not in awareness but can be brought to awareness,
o Unconscious-material u cant retrieve, thoughts including anxiety, pain desire that
cant be retrieved.
Freudian slip: info leaks into consciousness, person reveals a hidden motive “ excuse me I don’t think we’ve
been properly seduced “
Psychsexual Stages:
Children go through psychosexual stages, libido is focused on one of the erogenous zones: the mouth , the
anus or the genitals
1. Oral stage : from birth to 18 months , pleasure is through the mouth , pleasure associated with
sucking while breastfeeding ,
2. Anal phase: focus on the anus children 2 to 3 , toilet training
3. Phallic : 3-5 , focus on genitals children discover the pleasure of rubbing their genitals , even
though there’s little evidence frued think children desire a relationship with the opp sex parent.
Children develop hostility to the same sex parent called Oedipus complex in boys. Children
resolve this by taking on same sex parent’s values and beliefs.
4. Latency stage : libidinal urges are suppressed or channeled into doing schoolwork or building
5. Genital stage : adolescents and adults attain mature attitudes about sexuality and adulthood
Some ppl become fixated at a stage during which they receive excessive parental restriction or indulgence.
o Those fixated at oral stage develop oral personalities: continue to seek pleasure through
the mouth ex. Smoking,
o Those fixated at anal stage have anal-retentive personalities: being stubborn and highly
regulating can arise from overly strict toilet training or excessive rule-based child
Acting on impulse and desire, driven by sex and aggression
The internalization of parental and societal standards and conduct, developed during the
phallic stage, based on morality or conscience
Satisfies wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego, reality
principle- rational thoughts and problem solving
Conflicts between the id and superego lead to the ego coming up with defense mechanisms: mental
strategies that the mind uses to protect itself from distress. Anna Freud came up with them.
1. Rationalizing: blaming situational factors over which they have little control, coming up
with excuses prevent ppl from feeling bad
2. Reaction Formation: when a person wards off an uncomfortable thought about the self by
embracing the opp thought
Neo-Freudians: include: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney
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Chapter 13 2
Aldred and Horney criticize frauds view on women.
Neo-Freidan’s focus on social interactions, rather sexual forces. Focus on object relations theory: the object
of attachment is another person, such as a parent or spouse.
Humanistic approach:
1950’s humanistic emphasize personal experience and belief systems, humans seek to fulfill their potential
(self actualization), humanism focuses on subjective human experience (phenomenology e.g. Maslow’s
theory )
Carl Rogers approach person centered approach-to personality emphasizes ppl’s personal understanding
or phenomenology
o Rogers focuses on parents and how they raise their kids, parents who whit hold their love from
their kids if they don’t do what they want, the kids abandon their dreams for this not to happen.
Rogers said parents should raise their kids with unconditional positive regard: children
accepted/loved no matter what and this kid will become a fully functioning person
Subjective well being degree of happiness and satisfaction, across culture well being varies, wealthiest
country has the highest level of satisfaction, ppl who are resilient experience more positivity,
Broaden and build theory - positive emotions allow ppl to come up with new solutions
Personality type: discrete categories based on global personality characteristics
Implicit personality theory: our tendency to assume certain personalities go together or predict stuff based
on minimal evidence ex: thinking introverts don’t like parties
Trait approach-provides method for assessing the extent to which individuals differ in personality
dispositions, such as sociability, cheerfulness and aggressiveness.
o Catellcomes up with factor analysis: grouping items according to their similarities
Eysenick’s Hieratical Model:
o Eysenckproposes hierarchical model of personality (see pg 590),
1. specific response level observed behaviors, if a person buys an item co its on sale
then repeats the behavior again then the behavior becomes at a
2. habitual response level , if the person is observed to behave the same way on
many occasions then it’s a
3. trait , traits can be viewed as components of
4. superordinate traits which include
a. introversion/extro, emotional stability and psychoticim.
Introversian/ extroversion extent to which ppl are shy,quite,sociable…
Emotional stability- extent to which ppls moods and emotions change , low in stability are neurotic ppl (
dramatic mood swings) and hold low opinion of self
Psychoticis: mix of agressive, impulse control and empathy, those high in psychotics are more aggressive
Five factor theory: identifies 5 basic personality traits: 1) openness 2) conscientiousness 3) extroversion,
4) agreeableness 4) neuroticism, see pg 591 for details
Cognitive-Social Theories:
Skinner thinks personality is a learned response, Kelly emphasizes ppl’s understanding or personal
constructs of their circumstances.
Rotter though behavior is a function of ppls expectancies for reinforcements , as well as the values they
ascribe to particular reinforces.
o internal locus of control think they bring about their own rewards vs.
o external locus of control rewards result from forces beyond their control
Cognitive-social theories of personality emphasize how personal beliefs of social situations shape
behavior and personality.
o Ex: Bundara and self-efficacy/observational learning.
Walter Mischel: believed personality traits often fail to predict behavior across situations.
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