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Chapter 2

Ch.2 - Research Methodology.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman

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CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY?
= way of finding anwers to empirical ?’s- ?’s that can be answered by observing the world and
measuring aspects of it.
Scientific method is used a systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to
answer ?’s about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why.
o Depends on 1)theory 2)hypothesis 3)research
Theory model of interconnected ideas/concepts that explains what is
observed and makes predictions about future events. Good theories produce a
wide variety of testable hypothesis
Hypothesis specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a
theory is correct data (objective observations/measurements)
Research scientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection
o Replication: repetition of an experiment to confirm the results. Increases confidence in
findings
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF STUDIES IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH?
Once researcher has defined a hypothesis, the next issue to address is the type of study design
to be used. 1) descriptive 2)correlational 3)experimental
o Descriptive/observational studies: involes observing and noting behavior
Naturalistic observation: where observers don’t change/alter ongoing behavior
Participant observation: type of descriptive study in which the researcher is
actively involved in the situation
Advantages: valuable at early stages of research when they’re simply trying to
see whether a phenomenon exists
Longitudinal studies: one ype of developmental design that involves observing
and classifying dev’tal changes that occur in the same ppl over time, either w/
no intervention by the observer or w/ intervention by the observer
Cross sectional studies: involve observing and classifying dev’tal changes that
occur in diff. groups of ppl at the same time
All of these involves variables (anything that can be measured and that can
vary/manipulated by experimenter)
Observer bias: systematic errors in observation that occur b/c of an observer’s
expectation
Experimenter expectancy effect: actual change in the behavior of
ppl/animals being observed that is due to observer bias
o Correlational designs examine how variables are related
Correlational study: a research method that examines how variables
are naturally related in the real world, w/out any attempt by the
researcher to alter them
o Disadv. : cant be used to support causal relationships. Cant
show the direction of the cause/effect relationship b/w
variables (directionality problem). An unidentified variable may
be involved (3rd variable problem)
o An experiment involves manipulating conditions
Experiment: study that tests causal hypotheses by measuring /manipulating
variables
Control group/ experimental group/ independent/dependent variable
Often criticized for being artificial
Establishing causality:
Confound: anything that affects a dependet variable and may
unintentionally vary b/w the experimental conditions of a study
o Random assignment is used to establish equivalent groups
Population: everyone in the group the experimenter is interested in
Sample: a subset of a population. Best way to make it represent a population is
Selection bias: when participants in diff. groups in an exp. Differ
systematically
Random assignment: the procedure for placing research participants
take into the conditions of an experiment in which each participant has
an = chance of being assigned to any level of the indep variable
Meta-analysis: a “study of studies” that combines the findings of
multiple studies to arrive at a conclusion
o Data collection methods of psychological science?
Culturally sensitive research: studies that take into account the ways culture
affects thoughts, feelings, and actions
o Observing is an obstrusive strategy
Observational techniques: a research method of careful and systematic
assessment and coding of overt behavior
Should study be conducted in the laboratory or in a natural env’t?
How should the data be collected-as written description of what was
seen, or as a running tally of prespecified categories of behavior?
Should observer be visible?
o Reactivity: when the knowledge that one is being observed
alters the behavior being observed
o Hawthorne effect: refers to changes in behavior that occur
when ppl know that others are observing them
o Case studies Examine Individual lives and org’s
Case study: special type of observational/descriptive study that involves
intensive examination of one person or a few individuals or one/few
organizations
+ can provide extensive data about 1/few individuals/organizations

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Description
CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY way of finding anwers to empirical s s that can be answered by observing the world and measuring aspects of itScientific method is useda systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer s about what happens when it happens what causes it and why o Depends on 1theory 2hypothesis 3researchTheorymodel of interconnected ideasconcepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events Good theories produce a wide variety of testable hypothesisHypothesisspecific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct data objective observationsmeasurementsResearchscientific process that involves the systematic and careful collectiono Replication repetition of an experiment to confirm the results Increases confidence in findings WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF STUDIES IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCHOnce researcher has defined a hypothesis the next issue to address is the type of study design to be used1 descriptive 2correlational 3experimental o Descriptiveobservational studies involes observing and noting behaviorNaturalistic observation where observers dont changealter ongoing behaviorParticipant observation type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situationAdvantages valuable at early stages of research when theyre simply trying to see whether a phenomenon existsLongitudinal studies one ype of developmental design that involves observing and classifying devtal changes that occur in the same ppl over time either w no intervention by the observer or w intervention by the observer Cross sectional studies involve observing and classifying devtal changes that occur in diff groups of ppl at the same time All of these involves variables anything that can be measured and that can varymanipulated by experimenterObserver bias systematic errors in observation that occur bc of an observers expectationExperimenter expectancy effect actual change in the behavior of pplanimals being observed that is due to observer bias o Correlational designs examine how variables are relatedCorrelational study a research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world wout any attempt by the researcher to alter them
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