Chapter 6.docx

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18 Apr 2012

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Chapter 6: Learning
Learning: and enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience. A benefir
from experience resulting in being better adapted to enviroment.
Association develop through conditioning, a process in which stimuli and
behavioral response become connected.
Two types of conditioning:
a. classical: two types of events go together. (scary movie and heart beating fast)
b. operant: behavior leads to an outcome (studying=better grades)
John watson and behaviorism; blank slate of people
Behavioral responses are conditioned
Pavilovs salivary experiment looked at the learned response of dogs to
salivate when they expected food.
The experiment:
Neutral stimulus provided aswell as the stimulus that provides the reflex
-Conditiong trial is the combination of these two stimuli, and is repeated in
trials, and after a while, the neutral stimuli resulted in exacting the same
response as the reflex stimuli as the dog was classically conditioned..
-In the case of the food setting off salivation, that was a unconditioned
response (UR). Not learned. The food itself is the unconditionedstimulus
(US). Conditioned stimulus is is the metronome (CS). And the conditioned
response is the salivation one the CS is used.
Acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery
Acquisition: the gradual formation of an asscosciation between the conditioned and
unconditioned stimuli
Extinction: A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the
conditioned stimuli is repeated without the unconditioned stimuli
Spontaneous recovery: a process in whch a previously extinguished response re-
emerges following following the presentation of the conditioned stimulus.
Continguity is the idea that the connection is strongest between the CS and
the US if there is a small time delay when exposing the animal to both.
The CR is Extinguished after the CS doesn’t appear after the use of the US.
The association gets extinguished
Generlization, dicrimination, and second order conditioning
Stimulus generlization: when a bunch of stimuli close or similar to an original
stimuli may be used to elicit the same response. Ex. Using a range of frequencies
near 100hz to get a dog to salivate when really it was trained onky for 100hz. It is
adaptive as in nature, the same stimulus is rare to occur more than once
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