Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders.docx

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18 Apr 2012
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Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders
How are Psychological disorders conceptualized and classified?
Criteria for determining whther behavior represents psychopathology
1) does behavior devite from cultural norms
2) is behavior maladaptive
3) is behavior causing person stress
Psychological disorders classified into catagories
-Patients are not given a single diagnoses but rather a multiaxial system
-diagnoses have 5 types
1. clinical
2.mental retartdation. Personality disorder
3. medical conditions
4. psychosocial problems
5. global or overall assessment of how well a person is functioning
Pyshcological disorders must be assessed
-Assement: process of examination of a mental state to diagnose possible disorders
- goals of assessment include: diagnoses, treatment and then ongoing assessment
- person comes into hospital and acts weird, theyre given a mental status exam
- person can also be brought to a psychologist where the person will receive a
clinical interview
structured Vs unstructured interview
- most interviews are unstructured; conversation varies. Flexible
- structured interviews have certain questions in the same order asked to the
patient. From there their responces go into a formula for determining
whether a condition is present
Types of testing
- oberservation of behavior. Good for kids
- issue with MMPI is that people like on other self reports lie. Validity scale
helps here though. Never the sole source of testing
- neuropsychological testing; asked to do a certain task
evidence based assement
- research guides evaluation of menta disorders
- comorbidity; a research proven fact that many mental disorders occur
together. Ex depressed people often have substance abuse aswell
dissociative identity disorder is a controversial diagnosis
- involves occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same person
- involves disruptions of memory, identity and conscious awareness
- most common groups to get them are women who were abused as kids.
- Develop for the purpose of coping with the abuse. Dissociate.
- Amnesia occurs
- Only One identity is aware that another one exists
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Etiology: factors that contribute to the development of a disorder
Psychological disorders have many causes
- nature nurture
- diathesus stress model; a diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may
develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating
event. the diathesis, the predisposition can be nature or nurture. Symptoms
of the disorder then occur when a sufficient amount of stress is put on the
person.
Biological factors
- posins introduced when kid is a fetus or when as a young child affects the
childs CNS.
Psychological factors
- family systems model; persons behavior should be considered within the
family. Persons issues reflect that of family
- socio cultural model; a diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the
result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures. EX
schizophrenia occurs more in lower socioeconomic classes and anorexia in
more wealthy communities
cognitive-behavioral factors
- Individual level the cog behave approach is used; diagnostic model that views
psychopathology as the result of learned maladaptive cognitions. Ex little
albert
- Thoughts and beleifs are behavior and can be studied empirically. People are
aware of their thoughts and can be made aware of the thoights that give rise
to maladptve emotions and behaviors
Sex differences in mental disorders
- environment and biology are the factors that make certain mental disorders
more common in one sex
- a lot of issues more common in men, and anorexia & panic disorders more
common in females.
- Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder equally distributed amongst sexes
- Internalized disorders: negative emotions of stress and fear are for women
- Externalized disorders; Disinhibiton like alcholohilsim, conduct disorders and
anti social behavior are for Men.
Cultural and mental disorders
-Biologically caused disorders seen across many cultures. Ex is depression, but that
being said it presents itself in different manners by cultures
-
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Can anxiety be the root of seemingly different disorders
- example of anxiety relating to two disorders is fear fo spiders and OCD
checking the stove.
- Anxiety is normal and useful. Helps us
- Anxiety disorder; excessive anxiety with no cause
There are different types of anxiety disorders
- effects seen in inability to sleep or stay asleep, fast pulse, sweating, rapid
pulse, muscle tension. Chronic anxiety is seen in hypertension, headaches
and intenstinal issues, figetting and toe tapping.
- Chronic stress can lead to atrophy of hippocampus (learning and memory)
Phobia disorder
-Phobia is a fear of an object or situation
snakes: ophidiophbia
enclosed spaces: claustrophobia
heights: acrophobia
social phobia/ social anxiety disorder
- fear of being negatively evaluated by others
- ex are speaking in public
- earliest one to develop, as early as 13
Generalized aniety disorder
- is diffuse and always present. General
- constantly anxious and worried
- because its not focused, anything makes a person anxious resulting in
distractability, fatigue, irritability, sleep rpoblems, headaches, muscle pain
- women diagnosed more than Men
Panic disorders
-1-2 percent of people get it
-women twice as likely
- overwhelming aatcks of terro cued by internal thoughts or external stimuli
- kids who have panic attacks grow up to sometimes have PTSD and other issues
relating to anxiety
- a related disorder, agoraphobia: fear of being in situations where escape is
impossible to the extant that causes a panic attack.
OCD
- compulsive actions and intrusive thoughts
- more common in women, starts in adulthood
- checking things is only way to calm anxiety
- people are aware of obsession and how h=they are irrational yet they cant
top them.
- One explanation is that disorder results from conditioning. Anxiety is parred
to a event theouf classical conditioning, and then once the anxiety is there,
the person tries to reduce it therefore going through operant conditioning!
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