Chapter 11.docx

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18 Apr 2012
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Chapter 11
-environment has a large effect:
a) Ugandan kids walk by 10 months
b) French children walk at 15 months
* north American kids sleep on backs to avoid SIDS and cant craw as a result whereas Ugandan
kids left on floor and crawl a lot
- nature and nurture
Development
-ZygoteEmbryofetus
- zygote= first new cell of life, sperm and egg combo
- ebryo= then formed from two weeks to two months after doing it. Internal organs form
- fetus= physical growth
Physical
- brain cells formed in first 7 months of gestation
- basic brain areas form after week 4
- cells that form cortex form by week 7
- hypothalamus and thalamus by week 10
- Left and right H form by week 12
- Brain is already cpmplex at birth
- Hormones important in development of fetus: low thyroid= low IQ. Also stress of
motherhood gives more hormones resulting in possible decreased birthweight
Teratogens
DEF: environmental agents that harm Fetus or embryo
- exposure at 4 weeks it affectsbrain
- physical effects seen later in life
- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS); too much alcohol. Low birth weight, head/face
abnormality, slight mental retartdation, behavioral and cognitive issues.
- Can happen even if the don’t drink heavily, binging can even do it
Things infants do
- order of behavior for newborn:
a) make eye contact right after birth
b) social smile at 6 weeks old
c) sit
d) crawl
e) stand
f) walk
g) talk
consistency suggests genetics at play
- newborns come into world able to hear,taste, smell, see, feel touch. Not fully developed
functions though
- 2 hour old infnats prefer sweet tastes
- can smell mothers own breastmilk
- will turn body towards source of sound
- hearing is better than vision
- liited vision perhaps a tool to keep wat the baby can see to its mother= social
interaction
grasping reflex: grab finger
rooting reflex:sucking on what touches their mouth
Myelination and neuronal connections
Early brain growth has two big aspects
1) specific areas in brain mature and become functional
2) brain areas begin communication with each other
- maturation of brain occurs through mylenation.
- Myelination begins on spinal cord in first trimester and on neurons in 2nd trimester
*Synaptic pruning is the use it or lose it principle for the neurons that have been made
as a lot are made.
- synaptic density: in auditory cortex is highest at 3
in visual at 1 and 2
in PFC at 6( that’s why critical reasoning is t 6)
- after connections established brain ties to mae them more permanent by increasing
mylenation
- size change of 80% cmes from increased myelination
- malnutrition has major effect on myelination
Sensitive Learning Periods
Eric lunenberg:
critical periods are biologically determined time periods for the developement of
specific skills. If not acquired at that point, a person cannot attain that skill.
Language as seen with genie isn’t as rigid of a skill
Specific periods :biologically determined periods to develop a skill most easily
Attachement promotes survival
- Human babies are immature but very active in their seeking of attention
Attachement definition: A strong emotional connection that persists over tine and across
circumstances
John bolby; attachement motivates close contact between mother and child. (attachement is
adaptive as attachement influences survival. Adults are also predisposed to treating infants in
a certain way which promotes attachement
Karl Lorenz: imprinting ; is the ability of children will follow parents relating to attachement
Harry Harlow
- contradicted theory of behvaiorsists that mom was important as a source of food
- what he did is the rhesus monkey experiment where he showed that mother was a
source of comfort and was went to when the monkey was unettled. This was seen in the
monkey staying with cloth mother of most of the time and then when hungry would go
to other one
Attahcement styles
Secure: cries when moms away but comforted when back
Avoidant: child isn’t distressed when mom away, and avoids her when back
Anxious/ambivalent: verrry upset when gone, cant get called down when back. Seen in
children who have behavioral issues
Disorganized: mixed responses when care giver comes and leaves
caregivers personality contributes to child’s attachment style
Chemistry of attachment
Oxytocin: maternal tendencies, social acceptance, bonding and sexual gratification. Sucking on
breast releases oxytocin, moves milk to ducts
Infant research techniques
a) Preferential looking technique:
-infants look longer at stimuli that interest them. Based on what’s looked at longer,
research knows what’s more interesting.
b) orienting reflex:
- paying attention to stimuli that’s novel over normal already seen stimuli
- can be used to gauge abilities of child to distinguish as if they look at new and old for
same amount of time it shows they lack the ability to distinguish
c) relies all on habituation. How a child becomes accustom to something and thing when
something happens to defy it, they show signs of it
Vision
A) vision acuity(based on preferential looking technique)
- how well a child can see
- high contrast strips
- shown that kids vision is poor when young, but gets better quick. Adult acuity reached
at 1 year old
II) stereograms: two different images shown to each eye of child. They are then coverted
into a form of depth perception. If infants cant tell difference (disparity information), they
only see a random collection of dots. It was shown that depth perception is only possible
between 3 and a half to 6 months old
Auditory
- at 6 months adult hearing reached
- children have memory for noises as shown in the next experiemtn
Anthony decasper and fifer nipple talk (operant conditioning)
- done on 2 day old infants where tjeu are given a rubber nipple, and if they stop sucking
they hear their moms voice, and so the kids stop sucking in order to hear mom
biological proof