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Chapter 1

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Psychoactive Drug, Pharmacology, Anxiolytic


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Chapter
1

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DRUGS BRAIN & BEHAVIOUR
First Term Test: Chapters 1-5 (1-158)

- is the study of how drugs a*ect mood, perception,
thinking, or behavior.
oTwo large 3elds: psychology and pharmacology. Thus,
psychopharmacology attempts to relate the actions and e*ects of
drugs to issues in psychology.
-!": Drugs that achieve these e*ects by acting in the
nervous system#
- A  must know how the nervous system functions and
how psychoactive drugs alter nervous system functioning.
- Another term is $"!# Although behavioral
pharmacology is usually considered synonymous with psychopharmacology,
some professionals limit the term behavioral pharmacology to the psychology
sub3eld of behavior analysis.
- In this respect, drugs serve as behaviorally controlling stimuli just like other
stimuli in behavior analytic models. (How drugs a*ect behaviour)
- Neuropsychopharmacology is another term for psychopharmacology. The
neuro pre3x represents the nervous system. (Drugs a*ect the nervous
system, altering behaviour)
Beyond being a required reading as a course requirement, psychopharmacology is
an incredibly important part of modern psychology.
- First, psychoactive drug use is highly prevalent.
- Consider the following statistics in the United States:
oMore than 100 million antidepressant drug prescriptions are written
every year.
oMore than 80 million anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic drugs are
prescribed every year.
oMore than 200 million pain-relieving drug prescriptions are written
every year [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2008].
The actions of antidepressant drugs led to understanding the roles that certain
neurotransmitters and brain structures play in depression. Researchers use many
experimental psychoactive drugs entirely as pharmacological tools for
understanding behavior.
Fourth, you will see how psychopharmacologists develop psychoactive treatments
for psychological disorders. As described later in this chapter, psychoactive
treatments for disorders—referred to as ""— are not derived
only from chemists. Rather, scientists trained in psychology test psychoactive drugs
and determine their potential e*ectiveness for psychological disorders.

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-is an administered substance that alters physiological functioning. A
drug is a substance that alters physiological functioning. However, a more
precise term is lacking.
oThe term administered indicates that a person takes or is given the
substance.
oThe phrase “alters physiological functioning” implies that the
substance must exhibit su@cient e@cacy to change physiological
processes.
- This de3nition has limitations.
oFirst, the term administered excludes substances made naturally in the
body. For example, the neurotransmitter dopamine is made in the
nervous system and elicits important changes in nervous system
functioning. However, hospital physicians may administer dopamine to
a patient in order to elevate heart rate.
oWhy not call vitamins drugs? We simply describe them as vitamins
(3gure 1.1). Nor do we describe herbal remedies as drugs despite their
physiological e*ects. The term drug lacks a precise de3nition.
!"%&%"$"$'"()"
1) Instrumental use - A person uses a drug instrumentally toward addressing
a speci3c purpose. (co*ee to wake up)
2) Recreational use - refers to using a drug entirely to experience its e*ects.
(drinking alc)
The term " applies to drugs that are intended for instrumental purpose but
are instead used recreationally.
%$" refers to drug use that causes harm to the user or others.
%""""can include the features of drug abuse, but a user also experiences a
need or urge to continue using a substance.
*""+","+",-""+"(%
A drug’s "" is developed for marketing the drug. Sometimes a trade
name is designed to be memorable or emotion provoking.
- Capitalized
A drug’s """ is developed for a number of reasons, including the drug’s
chemical structure and similarity to other drugs.
- Tylenol = Acetaminophen
- Advil = ibuprofen
- Chlorpromazine, clozapine, olanzapine (-ine = amine chemical group in
structure)
Rec drugs referred to by street name.
- ADAM = MDMA = ecstasy
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Amphetamines = Bennies, black beauties
Benzodiazepines = Candy, downers, sleeping pills
Cocaine = Coke, rock, crack
Dextromethorphan (used in cough syrup) = Robo, triple C
Marijuana = Joint, blunt, weed
Methamphetamine = Meth, ice, crystal
MDMA = Ecstasy, Adam
LSD = Acid, blotter
Phencyclidine = PCP, angel dust
%."&%"""$%"
Drug e*ects depend on the dose of a drug. %" is a ratio of the amount of drug
per an organism’s body weight.
- A doctor’s o@ce records your weight, in part, to calculate drug dosing. If the
doctor prescribes a medication, she needs to know the dose of a drug to
prescribe based on your body weight. Generally, the higher a drug’s dose, the
greater its e*ects.
- Researchers determine the e*ects of drugs by evaluating a range of di*erent
doses. This information is plotted on dose-e*ect curves. A dose-e*ect curve
depicts the level of a drug e*ect by dose.
%/!" represents the dose at which 50 percent of an e*ect was observed.
This corresponds to a dose that matches with the 50-percent e*ect point on the
dose-e*ect curve.
-" refers to the amount of drug used to produce a certain level of
e*ect.
- By representing a dose-response curve, an ED50 value allows a way to
calculate the relative level of potency between di*erent drugs.
- The ED50 for lethality dose-response curves is referred to as an LD50 value
(LD stands for lethal dose) or a TD50 value (TD stands for toxic dose). LD50
values allow for the determination of a therapeutic index.
-"""0is a ratio of a drug’s a lethal dose-e*ect value relative
to a therapeutic dose-e*ect value. One way to calculate a therapeutic index
is to divide an LD50 value by an ED50 value. A therapeutic index answers this
question: How di*erent is a dose that kills half of the subjects from a dose of
the same drug that produces a full therapeutic e*ect in half of the subjects?
&,1",
""
is the study of how drugs a*ect biological actions. For
psychoactive drugs, the biological actions include the drug actions on the nervous
system.
1" is the study of how drugs pass through the body. This 3eld
considers di*erent ways to administer a drug, how long a drug stays in the body,
how well the drug enters the brain, and how it leaves the body.
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