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Chapter 7.2

PSY100H1 Chapter 7.2: Psychology Module 7.2


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Chapter
7.2

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Psychology Module 7.2
In its simplest form memory consists of encoding new information,
storing information and then retrieving that stored information at a later
time. Encoding is the process of transforming of sensory and perceptual
information into memory traces and retrieval is the process of
accessing memorized information and returning it to short term memory.
In between these two processes is the concept of storage: which refers
to the time and manner in which information is retained between
encoding and retrieval.
Reciting an address in mind until you had a chance to run to your car to
write it down. This type of memorization is known as rehearsal to
psychologists.

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Longer rehearsal did not lead to better recall. This not to say that
repeating the word had no e#ect at all, rather this study demonstrated
that repeating information only had small bene$t, and that this bene$t
was not increased with longer rehearsal time. Study participants asked
to remembering rout digit numbers, after seeing digits asked to
remember single world until being asked to prompt. The delay between
presentation was 2-18 sec varied. Because trying to remember digits
participants barley remembered word, later when asked to recall word,
they found no relationship between rehearsal and proportion of
individuals who can recall word.
It turns out that it is not how long we rehearse information but rather
how we rehearse it that determines the e#ectiveness of memory.
Individuals in the study just described were engaged in maintenance
rehearsal: prolonging exposure to information by repeating it- which
does relatively little to facilitate encoding that leads to the formation of
long term memories. By comparison elaborative rehearsal:
prolonging exposure to information by thinking about its meaning-
signi$cantly improves the process of encoding.
Although maintenance rehearsal helps us remember for a very short
time, elaborative rehearsal improves long term learning and
remembering
Although we often $nd ourselves using maintenance rehearsal in a
pinch we rarely use that strategy for information that we intend to
remember much later, instead we focus on elaborative encoding,
where additional sensory or semantic (meaning) information is
associated with the to be remembered item. But not all elaborative
encoding is created equal, instead di#erent types of elaborative
encoding can produce markedly di#erent levels of recall.
The details surrounding this variability were $rst described researcher
let to framework for memory known as levels of processing (LOP)
LOP framework begins with understanding that our ability to recall
information is mostly directly related to how information was initially
processed. Di#erences in processing can be described as a continuum
ranging from shallow to deep processing
Shallow processing, as you might guess involves more super$cial
properties of a stimulus, such as the sound or spelling of a word.
Deep processing: on the other hand is generally related to an items
meaning or function. It should come to no surprise that deep
processing is associated with better retention and retrieval.
The superiority of deep processing was demonstrated in study in which
participants encoded words, using shallow processing (e.g. does this
word rhyme with dust, trust) or deep processing 9/ is this word a
synonym for locomotive… train).
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More likely to recall deep processed word than that was processed at
only a shallow level. Importantly such e#ects are limited to LTM; STM
memory rates are una#ected by shallow or deep processing.
Self-reference eect occurs when you think about information in
terms of how it relates to you or how it is useful to you; this type of
encoding will lead to you remembering that information better than
you otherwise would have.
Less intuitive is survival processing: researcher have found that
when item is processed as they related to survival they are more likely
to be recalled.
Although encoding strategies clearly in6uence our ability to remember
information later, they only tell part of the story. The condition in which
we attempt to retrieve information from memory can also a#ect
whether or not that information will be recalled.
Retrieval: Once information is encoded0 be it in deep or shallow and
stored in memory- the challenge is then to be able to retrieve that
information when its needed. There are two forms of intentional
memory retrieval both of which are familiar to long su#ering students.
Recognition: Involves identifying a stimulus or piece of information
when it is presented to you. Example would identifying someone you
know on the bus ( or police line up) or multiple choice questions.
Recall: Involves retrieving information when asked but without that
information being present during retrieval process, example would
describing a friend’s appearance to someone else or short answer
question on exams.
Recall is helped substantially when there are hints, or retrieval cues,
that help prompt our memory. The more detailed the retrieval cue, the
easier it is for us to produce the memory.
Retrieval cues in the real world often involve places, people, sights,
and sounds in other word the environment or context in which you are
trying to retrieve a memory.
Research have found that retrieval is most e#ective when it occurs in
the same context as encoding, a tendency known as the encoding
speci$city principle.
Encoding speci$city principle can take many forms. One of the major
forms is context dependant memory the idea that retrieval is more
e#ective when it takes place in the same physical setting ( context) as
encoding what elements of the environment make up context.
Almost everyone has had the experience of walking into a room to
retrieve something- speci$c piece of mail or roll of tape only to have no
idea why the intended to pick it up call this context- dependant
forgetting.
Context reinstatement eect: which occurs when you return to the
original location and the memory suddenly comes back. But research
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