Module 3. 2 - how the nervous system works: Neurons, one of the major types of cells found in the nervous system, that are responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout the body. Primary purpose: to fire, revise input from one group of neurons and then transmit the information to another group. Cell body (also known as the soma ), the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus that houses the cell"s genetic material. Synthesize protein that form the chemicals and structures that allow neurons to function. Dendrites: small branches radiating from the cell body that receive messages from other cells and transmit those messages toward the rest of the cell. Axon: transports information in the form of electrochemical reactions from the cell body to the end of the neuron. The axon terminals contain neurotransmitters: the chemicals that function as messengers allowing neurons to communicate with each other .