Synthesize protein that form the chemicals and structures that allow neurons to. Neurons, one of the major types of cells found in the nervous system, that are responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout the body. Primary purpose: to re, revise input from one group of neurons and then transmit the information to another group. Cell body (also known as the soma ), the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus that houses the cell"s genetic material. function. Dendrites: small branches radiating from the cell body that receive messages from other cells and transmit those messages toward the rest of the cell. Axon: transports information in the form of electrochemical reactions from the cell body to the end of the neuron. The axon terminals contain neurotransmitters: the chemicals that function as messengers allowing neurons to communicate with each other . Sensory neurons- receive information from the bodily senses and bring them to the brain.