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Chapter 5

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Addiction, Drugs Controlled By The Uk Misuse Of Drugs Act, Incentive Salience


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Chapter
5

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DRUGS&OF&ABUSE!
Naomi!Alphonsus!!
CHAPTER!5!
PSYC62!
!
Psychoactive!drugs!fall!into!2!categories:!those!intended!for!instrumental!use,!and!those!intended!for!
recreational!use.!.!Remember!that!a!drug!is!used!instrumentally!for!a!socially!acceptable!purpose!whereas!a!
person!uses!a!drug!recreationally!just!to!experience!the!drug’s!effects.!!!
Regulatory+Agencies+and+Drug+Classification++
Laws!at!the!state!and!national!level!limit!the!availability!of!drugs!hat!have!a!significant!risk!of!abuse.!!
Ex.!Harrison!Narcotics!Act!of!1915!!!!restricted!the!sale!of!narcotics,!primarily!opioid!drugs,!for!
medical!use.!!Law!enforcement!officials!interpreted!these!medical!uses!to!exclude!treating!withdrawal!
symptoms!in!opioid!dependence!!
1970!!!Controlled!Substance!acts;!drugs!of!abuse!=!controlled!substances.!This!act!required!the!legal!
regulation!of!certain!drugs!with!abuse!potential!and!led!to!a!classification!system!for!ranking!dugs!by!
abuse!potential!and!proven!medical!use.!!
U.S.!Drug!Enforcement!Administration!(DEA)!uses!5!schedules!to!categories!drug!abuse.!Schedule!V!
drugs!have!low!abuse!potential!and!legitimate!medical!purpose!ex.!Codeine,!an!opioid!and!key!
ingredient!in!prescription!strength!cough!syrups.!+The+lower+the+schedule+number,+the+greater+the+
potential+for+abuse.+!Schedule!II!!!high!abusive!potential!but!have!medical!uses.!!Substance!I!=!highest!
abuse!potential!ex.!LSD,!Heroin!and!Cannabis!!
In!the!UK!they!assess!harm!caused!by!abused!drug!according!to!3!classification!levels.!Class!A!drugs!=!
most!harm!and!carry!the!stiffest!penalties!for!possession!and!drug!dealer!(includes!MDMA,!cocaine,!
psychedelic!mushrooms).!Class!C!=!least!harm,!lowest!penalties!(barbiturates,!ketamine,!and!GHB).!
Class!B!=!moderate!potential!!!!
Criticism!for!of!controlled!substance!schedules!fall!into!2!general!categories!1)!appropriateness!of!drug!
scheduling!and!2)!methods!used!to!schedule!drugs!!
Henningfield!vs.!Benowitz!ranked!abused!drugs!according!to!severity!as!measured!by!withdrawal!
symptoms,!tolerance,!reinforcing!effects,!addiction,!and!intoxication.!!Both!Henningfield!and!Benowitz!
agreed!that!nicotine!presented!greatest!addiction!followed!by!heroin,!cocaine,!alcohol,!caffeine!and!
marijuana.!They!ranked!alcohol!has!having!the!worst!withdrawal!symptoms!and!cocaine!as!eliciting!the!
strongest!reinforcing!effects.!Marijuana!ranked!as!the!leas!serious!drug!but!keep!in!mind!that!alcohol!
and!tobacco!aren’t!scheduled!substances,!but!marijuana!is.!!
Nutt!et!al.,!offered!alternative!approach!for!drug!scheduling.!Defined!harm!as!consisting!physical!harm,!
addiction!and!societal!harm!!
o Physical!harm!=!damage!to!body!!
o Addiction!=!inability!to!stop!taking!a!drug!!!
o Societal!harm!=!harm!to!family!and!other!social!relationships!!!costs!associated!with!health!
care!and!law!enforcement!!
Based!on!the!criteria!but!Nutt!et!al.,!heroin!was!rated!highest!for!physical!harm,!addiction,!and!societal!
harm.!GHB!was!rated!the!lowest!for!physical!harm,!!inhaled!solvents!lowest!for!addiction,!and!MDMA!
lowest!1.09!
o Compare!this!to!the!US!classification!of!GHB!and!MDMA!as!schedule!I!substances,!and!the!UK!
classification!of!MDMA!as!Class!A!!
DEFINITIONS+AND+THE+DIAGNOSIS+OF+DRUG+ADDICTION+++
Early!definitions!of!addiction!focused!on!the!development!of!tolerance,!physical!dependence!and!
craving.!!!

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NAOMI!ALPHONSUS!! ! ! CHAPTER!5!
More!recently,!the!DSM`IV!classifies!substance+dependence+!as!!a!maladaptive!pattern!of!substance!
use!leading!to!clinically!significant!impairment!or!distress!as!manifested!by!3!or!more!symptoms:!
tolerance,!withdrawal,!taking!more!of!a!drug!than!intended,!persistent!desire!to!quit,!significant!time!
in!drug!seeking!and!taking,!replacing!important!activities,!and!continued!use!despite!knowing!the!
harmful!effects!of!the!drug!(physical/physiological)!and!the!toll!l!it!takes!on!valuable!social!
relationships!and!occupational!activities!!
o DSM!definition!of!addiction!differs!from!early!definition!b/c!it!considers!drug!use!that!persists!
despite!strong!desire!to!stop!!
Substance+Abuse+=+maladaptive!pattern!of!substance!use!that!doesn’t!involve!tolerance!or!
dependence!!
o Tolerance!and!psychological!dependence!are!the!key!differentiating!factors!b/w!the!DSM!
definitions!of!substance!dependence!and!substance!abuse.!!
Addiction!=!chronically!relapsing!disorder!that!may!require!years!of!treatment!!
o Relapse=+return!to!chronic!drug!use!state!that!meets!the!clinical!features!of!addiction.!!!
o Sustained!full!remission!=!no!symptoms!for!dependence!or!abuse!occurring!over!at!least!a!12!
month!period!!
o Sustained!partial!remission!=!one!or!more!symptoms!occurring!for!dependence!or!abuse!within!
12!months!(as!opposed!to!the!3!needed!to!diagnose!abuse/dependence)!!
THEORETICAL+MODELS+AND+THE+FEATURES+OF+DRUG+ADDICTION++
!"#$%#$&'(!$)&(*&!+,-&%!!"./"(0&&
Clinical!definitions!for!addiction!serve!only!to!diagnose!an!addiction!rather!than!explain!the!factors!
causing!addiction.!!
Addiction!models!largely!fall!into!3!categories:!disease,!dependence,!and!positive!reinforcement!!
When!considering!drug!addiction!as!a!disease,!one!may!determine!how!drugs!of!abuse!may!interrupt,!
cease,!or!disrupt!functions!in!the!body.!!
o Those!who!advocate!for!this!model!affirm!that!the!substance!serves!as!the!cause!of!the!disease.!
One!may!possess!a!predisposition!for!drug!addiction,!just!as!a!disease!may!disrupt!physiological!
processes,!drugs!can!also!disrupt!neurobiological!processes!leading!to!addictive!behaviour.!!!
o Defining!addiction!as!a!diseases!allows!the!medical!health`care!system!to!address!addiction!
toward!the!primary!purpose!of!eliminating!substance!use.!!!
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Associative+learning:!process!in!which!an!organism!learns!associations!between!stimuli!or!between!
behaviour!and!stimuli!!!
o Some!drug`addiction!models!focus!on!associative!learning!principles!to!characterize!the!
behavioural!features!of!drug!use!!
o Comes!from!principals!of!operant!and!classical!conditioning!!
Operant+conditioning:+!consequences!modify!the!occurrence!and!form!of!behaviour!!
o Based!on!punishment!and!reinforcement+(a!process!that!increases!behavioural!tendencies)!
" Negative!reinforcement!=!the!removal!of!a!stimulus!!
" Positive!reinforcement!=!addition!of!a!stimulus!ex.!rat!pressing!a!lever!to!earn!food!
pellets.!Food!pellets!==!positive!reinforce!to!keep!pressing!the!lever!!
" Extinction!=!decline!in!responding!as!he!result!of!failing!to!achieve!reinforcers!!
Conditioned+stimulus:a!stimulus!that!acquires!the!behavioural!controlling!properties!of!another!
stimulus!that!is!involved!in!its!associated!learning!process!!
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NAOMI!ALPHONSUS!! ! ! CHAPTER!5!
o Ex.!a!tone!may!acquire!a!reinforcing!property!if!the!tone!repeatedly!occurs!in!the!presence!of!
food.!A!rat!would!then!emit!a!salivating!response!upon!hearing!just!the!tone!alone!withouth!the!
presence!of!food!!
" The!tone!=!conditioned(reinforcer!
Associative!learning!may!also!occur!during!certain!conditions!or!environmental!contexts!!
o Discriminative!stimulus!=!stimulus!that,!when!present,!signal!the!availability!of!reinforcement.!
Reinforcement!processes!do!not!occur!when!the!discriminative!stimulus!is!absent!!
" Ex.!for!the!hungry!rat,!a!discriminative!stimulus!might!be!the!light!that!illuminates!the!
test!chamber!during!experimental!procedures!!!
UCS!elicit!a!reflex!response!UR!e.g.!food!and!salivation.!CS!elicit!response!CR!after!repeatedly!pairing!
with!UCS!e.g.!presence!of!tone!and!salivation.!Latent!inhibition!refers!to!the!resistant!or!slower!
conditioning!process!from!using!a!familiar!stimulus!as!the!neutral!stimulus!in!the!learning!process.!
Using!a!familiar!stimulus!in!learning!tends!to!be!much!slower!than!using!an!entirely!novel!aka!new!
stimulus!in!learning.!!
Incentive+salience:!attribution!of!salient!motivational!value!to!otherwise!neutral!stimuli,!which!is!an!
important!part!of!drug!addiction.!This!can!occurs!through!association!of!neutral!stimulus!to!reward!
stimuli!e.g.!the!incentized!stimulus!commands!the!person’s!attention!and!elicit!a!motivation!to!pursue!
and!associated!stimuli.!!
GoalKdirected+behaviour:!behaviour!that!occurs!when!an!organism!engages!in!the!learned!behaviour!in!
order!to!achieve!a!desired!goal.!This!plays!a!role!in!decision`making!esp.!in!drug!seeking!behaviour.!
Here!the!association!b/w!response!and!outcome!govern!the!goal`!directed!behaviour.!
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Wikler!provided!on!of!the!first!drug`addiction!models!to!consider!drug!effects!as!behavioural!variable!!
o He!stated!that!drug`addicted!individuals!developed!a!drive!to!achieve!a!drug’s!positive!
reinforcing!effects.!This!drive!motivate!a!person!to!engage!in!drug!seeking!behaviour.!The!
withdrawal!effects!exereinced!contributes!to!otivating!a!person!to!seek!the!drug’s!positive!
reinforcing!effects!!
Solomon!and!Corbit:+OpponentKprocess+theory:!Opposing!processes!counter!the!effects!of!an!abused!
drug.!Before!addiction!occurs,!few!if!any!processes!counteract!a!drug’s!effects.!During!addiction,!
opponent!processes!counteract!a!drug’s!effects.!Equally!balancing!drug!effects!and!opposing!processes!
counteract!a!drug’s!effects.!Equally!balancing!drug!effects!and!opposing!processes!lead!to!homeostasis,!
whereas!overpowering!drug!effects!can!overcome!opponent!processes.!Withdrawal!effects!occur!when!
ovpposing!processes!occur!in!the!absence!of!drug!effects.!!
Summing!up!this!process,!if!a!drug’s!effects!outweigh!those!from!opposing!processes,!then!an!
individual!will!experience!the!drug’s!effects.!However,!if!the!opposing!effects!outweigh!the!drug!
effects,!the!individual!experience!the!withdrawal!effect!and!the!person!experiences!normal!effects!if!
the!drug’s!effects!equally!balance!against!opposing!effects.!The!opposing!theory!argues!that!addictive!
drug!use!occurs!partly!to!remove!or!prevent!withdrawal!symptoms.!Motivation!for!dugs!shifts!from!
achieving!reinforcing!effects,!in!a!positive!context!to!avoid!withdrawal!effects.!
The!type!of!reinforcement!governing!addictive!behaviour!also!distinguishes!between!Wikler’s!drive!
model!and!Solomon!and!Corbit’s!opponent`process!theory.!!
o The!opponent!process!theory!considers!that!addictive!drug!use!occurs!partly!to!remove!or!
prevent!withdrwawal!symptoms.!So!during!the!development!of!addiction,!motivations!!for!drug!
use!can!shift!achieving!reinforcing!effects,!in!a!positive!reinforcement!context,!to!ridding!or!
avoiding!withdrawal!symptoms,!in!a!negative!reinforcement!context!!
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