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Chapter 15

PSY100CHAPTER15

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 15
Fundamental Attribution Error - tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors
in explaining behaviour
-attributions are explanations for behaviour
-We attribute others behaviours to their personalities
-Fail to consider the situation people are in and its affect on their behaviours
-Abu Ghraib, Stanford Prison STudy
-Social Psychology - concerned with how others influence the way a person thinks, feels, acts
-A great deal of mental activity occurs automatically and without conscious awareness or intent - evaluate people
and objects we encounter
-Notion ofself” - hard to define -self-concept” - everything you know about yourself - guides our attention to
information that is relevant to us and that helps us to adjust to the environment
-Self as the knower (I) subject doing thinking, feeling, acting, choosing planning - state of self-awareness - when I
thinks about me
-self as the object that is known (me)
- Objective self-awareness - leads people to act in accordance with their personal values and beliefs
-People less likely to cheat if sitting in front of mirrors
-self-discrepancy theory - awareness of differences between personal standards and goals leads to strong emotions -
see yourself as lazy when you want to be hardworkng - frustrating, depressing etc
-Damage to frontal lobes - lack of introspection
-Self-schema - cognitive aspect of the self-concept, consisting of an integrated set of memories, beliefs, and
generalizations about the self - network of interconnected knowledge about the self - enhanced memory for info that
is processed in a self-referential manner
-Cocktail party effect - ability to hear your own name over loud music - info about self deeply processed
-Filters info about self
-Middle of frontal lobes more activated when answering questions about yourself
-Working self-concept - limited to the amount of personal info that can be processed cognitively at any given time -
at a party think of yourself as fun loving rather than intelligent - act in accordance with our self-concept - different
situations elicit different behaviours
-Differing self-concepts - whether they view themselves as fundamentally separate from or inherently connected to
other people.
-People in collectivist cultures tend to have interdependent self-construals - self-concepts determined largely by
social roles and personal relationship
-People in individualist cultures tend to have independent self-construals - self as separate from others,
emphasizing self-reliance and pursuit of personal success
-Self-esteem - evaluative aspect of the self concept
-One view that self-esteem is based on how they believe others perceive them - reflected appraisal
-Internalize the values and beliefs expressed by important people in their lives
-Respond to themselves consistently with how others respond to them
-This view led to promotion of children accepted and loved no matter what they do, but inappropriate
behaviours corrected through punishment
-sociometer theory - internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection - fundamental need to belong, adaptive -
belonging to social group meant better chances at survival - self-esteem monitors the likelihood that they will be
rejected
-Terror management theory - self-esteem helps provide meaning for individuals by staving off anxiety over their
mortality - people counter mortality fears by creating a sense of symbolic immortality through contributing to their
culture and upholding its values
-Self-esteem only weakly related to objective life outcomes
-High self-esteem not always ideal - criminals and bullies tend to have high self-esteem - feel people are not giving
them the respect they deserve
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Description
Chapter 15 Fundamental Attribution Error - tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining behaviour - attributions are explanations for behaviour - We attribute others behaviours to their personalities - Fail to consider the situation people are in and its affect on their behaviours - Abu Ghraib , Stanford Prison STudy - Social Psychology - concerned with how others influence the way a person thinks, feels, acts - A great deal of mental activity occurs automatically and without conscious awareness or intent - evaluate people and objects we encounter - Notion of self - hard to define - self-concept - everything you know about yourself - guides our attention to information that is relevant to us and that helps us to adjust to the environment - Self as the knower (I) subject doing thinking, feeling, acting, choosing planning - state of self-awareness - when I thinks about me - self as the object that is known (me) - Objective self-awareness - leads people to act in accordance with their personal values and beliefs - People less likely to cheat if sitting in front of mirrors - self-discrepancy theory - awareness of differences between personal standards and goals leads to strong emotions - see yourself as lazy when you want to be hardworkng - frustrating, depressing etc - Damage to frontal lobes - lack of introspection - Self-schema - cognitive aspect of the self-concept, consisting of an integrated set of memories, beliefs, and generalizations about the self - network of interconnected knowledge about the self - enhanced memory for info that is processed in a self-referential manner - Cocktail party effect - ability to hear your own name over loud music - info about self deeply processed - Filters info about self - Middle of frontal lobes more activated when answering questions about yourself - Working self-concept - limited to the amount of personal info that can be processed cognitively at any given time - at a party think of yourself as fun loving rather than intelligent - act in accordance with our self-concept - different situations elicit different behaviours - Differing self-concepts - whether they view themselves as fundamentally separate from or inherently connected to other people. - People in collectivist cultures tend to have interdependent self-construals - self-concepts determined largely by social roles and personal relationship - People in individualist cultures tend to have independent self-construals - self as separate from others, emphasizing self-reliance and pursuit of personal success - Self-esteem - evaluative aspect of the self concept - One view that self-esteem is based on how they believe others perceive them - reflected appraisal - Internalize the values and beliefs expressed by important people in their lives - Respond to themselves consistently with how others respond to them - This view led to promotion of children accepted and loved no matter what they do, but inappropriate behaviours corrected through punishment - sociometer theory - internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection - fundamental need to belong, adaptive - belonging to social group meant better chances at survival - self-esteem monitors the likelihood that they will be rejected - Terror management theory - self-esteem helps provide meaning for individuals by staving off anxiety over their mortality - people counter mortality fears by creating a sense of symbolic immortality through contributing to their culture and upholding its values - Self-esteem only weakly related to objective life outcomes - High self-esteem not always ideal - criminals and bullies tend to have high self-esteem - feel people are not giving them the respect they deserve www.notesolution.com
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