Chapter 13 <Disorders of Mind and Body>
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
- A handbook of clinical disorders used for diagnosing psychopathology.
– is based on the growing realization that mental health is affected by a variety of factors.
- used in the DSM that provides assessment along five axes describing important mental health factors.
– A client is asked to perform certain actions such as copying a picture, drawing a design from memory, sorting cards
- Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Causes of Mental Disorders
1. Psychological factors
- Family systems model: A diagnostic model that considers symptoms within an individual as
indicating problems within the family.
- Socioculutral model: A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of the
interaction between individuals and their cultures
2. Cognitive-Behavioral factors
- Cognitive-behavioral approach: A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of
learned, maladaptive cognitions. It interferes with some
important aspect of their lives
3. Biological factors
- Genetics contribute to mental illness
- may cause it from prenatal problems such as maternal illness, malnutritions
4. Diathesis-stress model: A diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an
underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event.
Psychopathology is conceptualized differently in the legal system than In the medical field
– Disorders characterized by the experience of excessive anxiety in the absence of true danger.
- causes a variety of somatic symptoms: sweating, dry mouth, rapid pulse, shallow breathing,
increased blood pressure, and increased muscular tension
1. Phobia disorder
- phobia: a fear of a specific object or situation. The fear is exaggerated and out of proportion to the
1. Specific Phobia: An irrational fear of a specific object or situation.
(ex: snakes(ophidiophobia), enclosed spaces(claustrophobia),
2. Social Phobia: A fear of being negatively evaluated by others
2. Generalized anxiety disorder
- persistent anxiety with no specific focus
- is diffuse and omnipresent
- people with this disorder are constantly anxious and worry incessantly about even minor matters
- symptoms: headaches, restlessness, fatigue, muscle pain, distractibility, sleeplessness
3. Panic disorder
- sufferers experience attacks of terror that are sudden and overwhelming.
- people have subjective feelings that they are dying and thus, more likely to attempt suicide
- more influenced by biological factor (ex: after inhaling CO2 and hyperventilating)
- A fear of being in a situation from which one can’t escape, such as on a crowded bus or
crowded shopping mall.
4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)