People across cultures largely agree on the meaning of different facial expressions.
Display rules – govern how and when emotions are exhibited.
When people are in good moods, they tend to use heuristic thinking, which allows them to make decisions more
quickly and efficiently.
- posits people use their current emotional state to make judgments and appraisals, even if they don’t know the
source of their moods. If they are aware of the source of their moods, their feelings no longer influence judgment.
Somatic markers – bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an action’s consequences
- ex) driving fast has led to speeding tickets, you will be motivated to slow down
- person with damage to the frontal lobes tend not to use past outcomes to regulate future behavior.
Attentional blink – occurs b/c attention was focused on the first word, and there’s a temporary impairment in
processing subsequent words.
- if the second word contains emotional info, such as “rape” then, people are better at remembering it.
The emotional content of the word captures attention and reduces the attentional blink.
Norepinephrine enhances memory for emotional events.Blocking it impairs the ability to recognize emotional
expressions and impair memory for emotional words.
Emotions consist of three components:
1. subjective experience – “how are you feeling?”
2. Physical changes – Increased heart rate, skin temperature
3. Cognitive appraisal – People’s beliefs and understandings about why they feel the way they feel
Mood disorders – depression or panic attacks. People become immobilized
– A disorder in which people don’t experience the subjective component of emotions (ex: Elliot).
- Physiological messages associated with emotions don’t reach the brain centers that interpret emotion.
- Damage to prefrontal cortex a loss of the subjective component of mood
Types of emotions
1. Primary emotions
- Evolutionarily adaptive emotions that humans share across cultures
- associated with specific biological and physical states
- include anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness, surprise, contempt
2. Secondary emotions
- blends of primary emotions
- include remorse, guilt, submission, anticipation
- An approach to understanding emotion in which two basic factors of emotion are spatially arranged in a circle,
formed around the intersections of the core dimensions of affect.
- emotions vary by valence and activation
- Positive activation : pleasant affect, associated with an increase in dopamine
- Negative activation : unpleasant affect, associated with an increase in norepinephrine
- Positive & Negative activations are independent and adaptive
James-Lange theory of emotion
- A theory that suggests that the experience of emotion is elicited by a physiological response to a particular stimulus
- Ex) facial feedback hypothesis: The idea that facial expressions trigger the experience of emotion
People hold a pencil between their teeth or with mouth
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion