Chapter 9 Motivation
* Motivation: factors that energize, direct or sustain behavior.
* Motivation states are :
1. energizing in that they activate or arouse behaviors. Ex) the desire for fitness might motivate you
to get up early and go for a jogging.
2. directive: guide behaviors toward satisfying specific goals or needs. Ex) hunger motivates you to
3. to persist in their behavior until goals are achieved or needs are satisfied. Ex) hunger gnaws at
you until you find something to eat
4. motives differ in strength, depending on both internal and external factors.
* Need: state of biological or social deficiencies within the body. Ex) a lack of food
* Maslow’s Hierarchy
1. Physiological needs: food, shelter, clothes, water
2. safety: insurance, guards,
3. belonging and love: relationship with friends, fiancés
4. esteem: self-esteem, confidence
5. self-actualization: occurs when someone achieves his personal dreams and aspirations. He is truly
happy. (difficult to measure and define precisely)
it lacks in empirical support.
more useful at the descriptive level than at the empirical level.
the greater the need, the greater the motivation to satisfy it.
* Drives: psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs.
* Arousal: increased physiological activation or increased autonomic responses.
* Need Drive Behavior
Nutrients Hunger Eat
* Homeostasis: the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium.
- Negative feedback model: people respond to deviations from equilibrium.
- Ex) turning air conditioning on when the room is exceeding its set point and after the air cools and set
back to its set point, then turn it off.
- Hypothalamus initiates such as sweating or shivering
* Over time, if a behavior consistently reduces a drive, it becomes a habit.
ex) watching tv to relieve stress, but then you always watch tv when you are
* Incentives: external objects that motivate behaviors
ex) You study hard to get an A on the final exams. (getting an A is an incentives)
You work hard for the summer in order to buy a car
* Arousal and performance
Yerkes-Dodson law: According to this law, performance increases with arousal until an optimal point,
after which arousal interferes with performance. (inverted U shape)
we should have optimal level of arousal in order to achieve our goals (ex. Exams)
* Pleasure can motivate adaptive behavior.
Early motivation: even newborns prefer sweet tastes to bitter
Hedonism: human experience of pleasantness and unpleasantness.
Adaptive behaviors also use the dopamine system.
* Extrinsic motivation: external goals that motivate people such as rewards.
ex) working hard to get a paycheck